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Radiationless relaxation and optical dephasing of molecules excited by wide- and narrow-band lasers. II. Pentacene in low-temperature mixed crystals

Orlowski, T. E. and Zewail, A. H. (1979) Radiationless relaxation and optical dephasing of molecules excited by wide- and narrow-band lasers. II. Pentacene in low-temperature mixed crystals. Journal of Chemical Physics, 70 (3). pp. 1390-1416. ISSN 0021-9606. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:ORLjcp79

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Abstract

One purpose of this paper is to present new studies on the effect of bandwidth and the coherence properties of the excitation source on the decay and the dephasing of isolated large molecules. A detailed study of the system pentacene in a p-terphenyl matrix is presented utilizing three different excitation sources, a single mode dye laser (60 KHz–6 MHz bandwidth depending on the time scale of the experiment) a multimode dye laser (240 GHz bandwidth), and an incoherent N2 flash lamp. Optical T1 (the longitudinal relaxation time) and T2 (the transverse relaxation time) are measured from the coherent and incoherent transients observed either in the forward direction of the laser or at right angles to the exciting beam. At 1.8 °K, the optical transition (1A1g-->1B2u) of pentacene in p-terphenyl exhibits four sites, the lowest of which at 16 887 cm−1 has the following parameters: T2=44±2 nsec; T1=24.9±2 nsec, and µ=0.7±0.1 D. The transition moment µ, is obtained directly from the optical nutation, which exhibits a Rabi nutation time (h-slash/µ·epsilon) of 27.3 nsec, and is corrected for the effect of the Lorentz local field inside the terphenyl crystal. The experiments presented here are categorized into two time regimes for theoretical analysis; a transient coherence regime where the observed decay is comparable with (h-slash/µ·epsilon) and T2, and a steady-state coherence regime where transient dephasing is complete and the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix have decayed to their steady-state values in the presence of the field of amplitude epsilon. Using the Wilcox–Lamb method, rate equations (with T2 expressions) describing the population flow in the ''complete'' level structure of pentacene (ground||0>, singlet ||p>, and triplet {||l}) are derived from the density matrix equations of motion. When these equations are averaged over the inhomogeneous width of the optical transition and the measured Gaussian transverse profile of our laser we obtain T1p0=24.9±2 nsec and T1pl=15.7 µsec, the time constants by which pentacene spontaneously decays to ||0> or crosses over into l, as well as the averaged population at time t. In an effort to be complete, attention is placed upon the relationship between theory and the experimental findings. First, expressions for the OFID and nutation in the solid are presented for the pentacene case in order to relate T1, T2, and µ to the level structure. Second, at low temperatures (1.8 °K), the origin of dephasing is identified as spontaneous emission from p-->0 since experimentally T2?2T1, in agreement with other work. At higher temperature, however, a strongly temperature dependent dephasing process with an onset at 3.7 °K takes place. Armed with these observations we present a theoretical treatment of these distinct dephasing channels and their temperature dependences. A discussion regarding the influence of ''accepting'' phonon modes (either optical or acoustic) on optical dephasing is also given. The results indicate that the treatment of Jones et al. can (1) explain the observed temperature dependence of T2 in pentacene; (2) distinguish dephasing as a result of scattering by acoustic phonons from that due to resonance or quasilocalized phonons with clear connections to gas and liquid state theories, but without invoking more than two approximation levels. (3) explain both the level shift and line width changes as a result of ''conventional'' dephasing or dephasing by exchange mechanisms; and (4) relate the pure dephasing term to an anisotropy in the scattering amplitudes (between the ground and excited states in the system) which contribute largely to the homogeneous width of the transition. Optical site selection of these transitions is also reported and discussed in relation to vibrational relaxation and to both homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadenings. The studies of the homogeneous broadening of the vibronic origin (267 cm−1) indicate that vibrational relaxation is fast (psec) in the excited singlet manifold of pentacene. Finally from more than ten independent experiments including single and multimode excitation, on- and off-resonance scattering, Zeeman effect and the transient decay as a function of excess energy in the molecule, a more complete picture of the pentacene level structure {||l>} is given. With this in mind, the influence of the laser bandwidth and coherence properties on state preparation and subsequent dephasing and decay is concluded. It is proposed that the slow decay, (~15 µsec) observed during narrow-band excitation represents intersystem crossing to nearby triple manifolds after the transient coherence of the 0<-->p subsystem is decayed. In addition, the decay of the primary state prepared in these experiments is not sensitive to the bandwidth or the correlation time of our excitation sources.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.437579DOIUNSPECIFIED
http://link.aip.org/link/?JCPSA6/70/1390/1PublisherUNSPECIFIED
Additional Information:Copyright © 1979 American Institute of Physics. Received 18 July 1978. Acknowledgment is made to the Donors of the Petroleum Research Fund, administered by ACS, for partial support of this work. This work was also supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation. We would like to acknowledge the contribution of and discussion with several people during the course of this work. W. Lambert has helped us in obtaining the results on the line shape analysis and some of the LADS experiments. K. Jones has contributed to Sec. V F and discussions with him throughout the work were productive. A. Nichols has provided us with the solution of the integral in Appendix II. Finally, we would like to thank Dr. N.J. Bridge and Dr. A. Lami and Dr. P. Grigolini for communicating unpublished results and Professor J. Jortner for stimulating discussions. [A.H.Z. was an] Alfred P. Sloan Fellow. Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, Contribution No. 5790.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Petroleum Research FundUNSPECIFIED
National Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:RELAXATION, RADIATIONLESS TRANSITIONS, LASER RADIATION, EXCITATION, POLYATOMIC MOLECULES, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
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Arthur Amos Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics5790
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Deposited On:13 Aug 2008 23:52
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