A Caltech Library Service

Electronic marking and identification techniques to discourage document copying

Brassil, J. and Low, S. and Maxemchuk, N. and O'Gorman, L. (1994) Electronic marking and identification techniques to discourage document copying. In: IEEE INFOCOM '94, Networking for Global Communications. Toronto, Ontario, 12-16 June 1994. Vol.3. IEEE , Piscataway, NJ, pp. 1278-1287. ISBN 0-8186-5570-4

PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Modern computer networks make it possible to distribute documents quickly and economically by electronic means rather than by conventional paper means. However, the widespread adoption of electronic distribution of copyrighted material is currently impeded by the ease of illicit copying and dissemination. In this paper we propose techniques that discourage illicit distribution by embedding each document with a unique codeword. Our encoding techniques are indiscernible by readers, yet enable us to identify the sanctioned recipient of a document by examination of a recovered document. We propose three coding methods, describe one in detail, and present experimental results showing that our identification techniques are highly reliable, even after documents have been photocopied.

Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Additional Information:© Copyright 1994 IEEE. Reprinted with permission. Publication Date: 12-16 June 1994.
Subject Keywords:computer networks; copy protection; cryptography; document image processing; image coding; reproduction (copying); codeword; computer networks; copyrighted material; document copying; electronic distribution; electronic marking; encoding; identification techniques; illicit copying; illicit distribution
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:BRAinfocom94
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:11564
Deposited By: Kristin Buxton
Deposited On:07 Sep 2008 04:00
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 10:16

Repository Staff Only: item control page