Balint, Claire N. and Dickinson, Michael H. (2004) Neuromuscular control of aerodynamic forces and moments in the blowfly, Calliphora vicina. Journal of Experimental Biology, 207 (22). pp. 3813-3838. ISSN 0022-0949 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:BALjeb04
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Flies are among the most agile of flying insects, a capacity that ultimately results from their nervous system's control over steering muscles and aerodynamic forces during flight. In order to investigate the relationships among neuromuscular control, musculo-skeletal mechanics and flight forces, we captured high-speed, three-dimensional wing kinematics of the blowfly, Calliphora vicina, while simultaneously recording electromyogram signals from prominent steering muscles during visually induced turns. We used the quantified kinematics to calculate the translational and rotational components of aerodynamic forces and moments using a theoretical quasi-steady model of force generation, confirmed using a dynamically scaled mechanical model of a Calliphora wing. We identified three independently controlled features of the wingbeat trajectory – downstroke deviation, dorsal amplitude and mode. Modulation of each of these kinematic features corresponded to both activity in a distinct steering muscle group and a distinct manipulation of the aerodynamic force vector. This functional specificity resulted from the independent control of downstroke and upstroke forces rather than the independent control of separate aerodynamic mechanisms. The predicted contributions of each kinematic feature to body lift, thrust, roll, yaw and pitch are discussed.
|Additional Information:||Published by The Company of Biologists 2004. Accepted 4 August 2004. First published online October 7, 2004. We would like to thank S.P. Sane and W.B. Dickson for their invaluable assistance with the aerodynamics calculations and programming of the mechanical model. The manuscript was greatly improved by critical comments from S.L. Lehman and two anonymous referees. This work was supported by grants from the Packard Foundation and the National Science Foundation (IBN-0217229).|
|Subject Keywords:||insect flight, kinematics, aerodynamics, steering, motor control, Calliphora vicina|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Archive Administrator|
|Deposited On:||09 Oct 2008 17:45|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 10:23|
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