Schultz, Wolfram and Preuschoff, Kerstin and Camerer, Colin and Hsu, Ming and Fiorillo, Christopher D. and Tobler, Phillippe N. and Bossaerts, Peter (2008) Explicit neural signals reflecting reward uncertainty. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 363 (1511). pp. 3801-3811. ISSN 0962-8436 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SCHUptrslb08
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The acknowledged importance of uncertainty in economic decision making has stimulated the search for neural signals that could influence learning and inform decision mechanisms. Current views distinguish two forms of uncertainty, namely risk and ambiguity, depending on whether the probability distributions of outcomes are known or unknown. Behavioural neurophysiological studies on dopamine neurons revealed a risk signal, which covaried with the standard deviation or variance of the magnitude of juice rewards and occurred separately from reward value coding. Human imaging studies identified similarly distinct risk signals for monetary rewards in the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), thus fulfilling a requirement for the mean variance approach of economic decision theory. The orbitofrontal risk signal covaried with individual risk attitudes, possibly explaining individual differences in risk perception and risky decision making. Ambiguous gambles with incomplete probabilistic information induced stronger brain signals than risky gambles in OFC and amygdala, suggesting that the brain’s reward system signals the partial lack of information. The brain can use the uncertainty signals to assess the uncertainty of rewards, influence learning, modulate the value of uncertain rewards and make appropriate behavioural choices between only partly known options.
|Additional Information:||© 2008 The Royal Society. Published online 1 October 2008. We thank Dr. Scott Huettel and Dr. Ben Seymour for their helpful comments. Our work was supported by the Wellcome Trust, NSF (USA), NIH (USA), Swiss NSF, Human Frontiers Science Program, Moore Foundation and several other grant and fellowship agencies.|
|Subject Keywords:||probability; risk; ambiguity; dopamine; striatum; orbitofrontal cortex|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Jason Perez|
|Deposited On:||16 Jun 2009 18:33|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 10:53|
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