Seymour, N. and Dwelly, T. and Moss, D. and McHardy, I. and Zoghbi, A. and Rieke, G. and Page, M. and Hopkins, A. and Loaring, N. (2008) The star formation history of the universe as revealed by deep radio observations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 386 (3). pp. 1695-1708. ISSN 0035-8711 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090514-115105662
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Discerning the exact nature of the sub-mJy radio population has been historically difficult due to the low luminosity of these sources at most wavelengths. Using deep ground based optical follow-up and observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope we are able to disentangle the radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star-forming galaxy (SFG) populations for the first time in a deep multifrequency VLA/MERLIN Survey of the 13^H XMM Newton/Chandra Deep Field. The discrimination diagnostics include radio morphology, radio spectral index, radio/near-infrared (near-IR) and mid-IR/radio flux density ratios. We are nowable to calculate the extragalactic Euclidean normalized source counts separately for AGN and SFGs. We find that while SFGs dominate at the faintest flux densities and account for the majority of the upturn in the counts, AGN still make up around one quarter of the counts at ∼50 μJy (1.4 GHz). Using radio luminosity as an unobscured star formation rate (SFR) measure we are then able to examine the comoving SFR density of the Universe up to z = 3 which agrees well with measures at other wavelengths. We find a rough correlation of SFR with stellar mass for both the sample presented here and a sample of local radio-selected SFGs from the 6df-NVSS survey. This work also confirms the existence of, and provides alternative evidence for, the evolution of distribution of star formation by galaxy mass: ‘downsizing’. As both these samples are SFR-selected, this result suggests that there is a maximum SFR for a given galaxy that depends linearly on its stellar mass. The low ‘characteristic times’ (inverse specific SFR) of the SFGs in our sample are similar to those of the 6dF-NVSS sample, implying that most of these sources are in a current phase of enhanced star formation.
|Additional Information:||© 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 RAS. Accepted 2008 February 24. Received 2008 February 20; in original form 2007 October 29. We thank the referee for help improving the presentation of this paper. We thank V. Smolˇci´c, P. Capak, K. Sheth, M. Huynh and R. Norris for useful discussions. We thank T. Mauch for help with the 6dF-NVSS data set. We thank M. Jarvis for providing his model prior to publication. We thank K. Gunn for much help in this project over the years. AH acknowledges support provided by the Australian Research Council in the form of a QEII Fellowship (DP0557850). This work is based in part on data obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by an award issued by JPL/Caltech. Partial support for this work was provided by contract 1255094 issued by JPL/Caltech to the University of Arizona. MERLIN is a National Facility operated by the University of Manchester at Jodrell Bank Observatory on behalf of STFC. This research used the facilities of the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre operated by the National Research Council of Canada with the support of the Canadian Space Agency. This work is based in part on data products produced at the TERAPIX data center located at the Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de I’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de I’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. The WHT and INT are operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Institute de Astrofısica de Canarias. The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the U.K. Based on observations obtained at the Hale Telescope, Palomar Observatory, as part of a collaborative agreement between the California Institute of Technology, its divisions Caltech Optical Observatories and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (operated for NASA), and Cornell University. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. These observations have been funded in part by the Optical Infrared Coordination network (OPTICON), a major international collaboration supported by the Research Infrastructures Programme of the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.|
|Subject Keywords:||galaxies: evolution; galaxies: starburst; radio continuum: galaxies|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Joy Painter|
|Deposited On:||24 Aug 2009 17:52|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 11:00|
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