Yavari, Arash and Marsden, Jerrold E. (2009) Covariant balance laws in continua with microstructure. Reports on Mathematical Physics, 63 (1). pp. 1-42. ISSN 0034-4877 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090804-151756303
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The purpose of this paper is to extend the Green-Naghdi-Rivlin balance of energy method to continua with microstructure. The key idea is to replace the group of Galilean transformations with the group of diffeomorphisms of the ambient space. A key advantage is that one obtains in a natural way all the needed balance laws on both the macro and micro levels along with two Doyle-Erickson formulas. We model a structured continuum as a triplet of Riemannian manifolds: a material manifold, the ambient space manifold of material particles and a director field manifold. The Green-Naghdi-Rivlin theorem and its extensions for structured continua are critically reviewed. We show that when the ambient space is Euclidean and when the microstructure manifold is the tangent space of the ambient space manifold, postulating a single balance of energy law and its invariance under time-dependent isometries of the ambient space, one obtains conservation of mass, balances of linear and angular momenta but not a separate balance of linear momentum. We develop a covariant elasticity theory for structured continua by postulating that energy balance is invariant under time-dependent spatial diffeomorphisms of the ambient space, which in this case is the product of two Riemannian manifolds. We then introduce two types of constrained continua in which microstructure manifold is linked to the reference and ambient space manifolds. In the case when at every material point, the microstructure manifold is the tangent space of the ambient space manifold at the image of the material point, we show that the assumption of covariance leads to balances of linear and angular momenta with contributions from both forces and micro-forces along with two Doyle-Ericksen formulas. We show that generalized covariance leads to two balances of linear momentum and a single coupled balance of angular momentum. Using this theory, we covariantly obtain the balance laws for two specific examples, namely elastic solids with distributed voids and mixtures. Finally, the Lagrangian field theory of structured elasticity is revisited and a connection is made between covariance and Noether's theorem.
|Additional Information:||© 2009 Elsevier. Research supported by the Georgia Institute of Technology. Research partially supported by the California Institute of Technology and NSF-ITR Grant ACI-0204932. AY benefited from discussions with J. D. Clayton, P. M. Mariano and A. Ozakin.|
|Subject Keywords:||continuum mechanics; elasticity; generalized continua; couple stress; energy balance|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Tony Diaz|
|Deposited On:||05 Aug 2009 05:54|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 11:08|
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