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Novel Forms of Structural Integration between Microbes and a Hydrothermal Vent Gastropod from the Indian Ocean

Goffredi, Shana K. and Warén, Anders and Orphan, Victoria J. and Van Dover, Cindy L. and Vrijenhoek, Robert C. (2004) Novel Forms of Structural Integration between Microbes and a Hydrothermal Vent Gastropod from the Indian Ocean. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70 (5). pp. 3082-3090. ISSN 0099-2240. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:GOFaem04

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Abstract

Here we describe novel forms of structural integration between endo- and episymbiotic microbes and an unusual new species of snail from hydrothermal vents in the Indian Ocean. The snail houses a dense population of {gamma}-proteobacteria within the cells of its greatly enlarged esophageal gland. This tissue setting differs from that of all other vent mollusks, which harbor sulfur-oxidizing endosymbionts in their gills. The significantly reduced digestive tract, the isotopic signatures of the snail tissues, and the presence of internal bacteria suggest a dependence on chemoautotrophy for nutrition. Most notably, this snail is unique in having a dense coat of mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, a feature seen in no other living metazoan. The scales are coated with iron sulfides (pyrite and greigite) and heavily colonized by {epsilon}- and {delta}-proteobacteria, likely participating in mineralization of the sclerites. This novel metazoan-microbial collaboration illustrates the great potential of organismal adaptation in chemically and physically challenging deep-sea environments.


Item Type:Article
Additional Information:Copyright © 2004, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Received 30 September 2003/ Accepted 2 February 2004 We thank the scientific party on Knorr leg KN162-13 and the captains and crew of the R.V. Knorr and the R.O.V. Jason. We also thank Todd Walsh for photographic assistance, J. Salerno and S. Bengtson for original transmission and scanning electron micrographs, R. Lee for isotopic measurements, and C. Cavanaugh, A. L. Reysenbach, and R. Popa for helpful discussions. This work was supported by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the U.S. National Science Foundation (R.C.V. and C.L.V.D.), and the M. Bergvall Foundation (A.W.).
Subject Keywords:WORM RIFTIA-PACHYPTILA; SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA; MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE; ALVINELLA-POMPEJANA; ELEMENTAL SULFUR; GALAPAGOS RIFT; DIVERSITY; IRON; DISPROPORTIONATION; PROTEOBACTERIA
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:GOFaem04
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:GOFaem04
Alternative URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.70.5.3082-3090.2004
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:1596
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:01 Feb 2006
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 08:45

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