Textor, C. and Schulz, M. and Guibert, S. and Kinne, S. and Balkanski, Y. and Bauer, S. and Berntsen, T. and Berglen, T. and Boucher, O. and Chin, M. and Dentener, F. and Diehl, T. and Easter, R. and Feichter, H. and Fillmore, D. and Ghan, S. and Ginoux, P. and Gong, S. and Grini, A. and Hendricks, J. and Horowitz, L. and Huang, P. and Isaksen, I. and Iversen, T. and Kloster, S. and Koch, D. and Kirkevåg, A. and Kristjansson, J. E. and Krol, M. and Lauer, A. and Lamarque, J. F. and Liu, X. and Montanaro, V. and Myhre, G. and Penner, J. and Pitari, G. and Reddy, S. and Seland, Ø. and Stier, P. and Takemura, T. and Tie, X. (2005) Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5 (5). pp. 8331-8420. ISSN 1680-7316 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090918-110555310
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Simulation results of global aerosol models have been assembled in the framework of the AeroCom intercomparison exercise. In this paper, we analyze the life cycles of dust, sea salt, sulfate, black carbon and particulate organic matter as simulated by sixteen global aerosol models. The diversities among the models for the sources and sinks, burdens, particle sizes, water uptakes, and spatial dispersals have been established. These diversities have large consequences for the calculated radiative forcing and the aerosol concentrations at the surface. The AeroCom all-models-average emissions are dominated by the mass of sea salt (SS), followed by dust (DU), sulfate (SO_4), particulate organic matter (POM), and finally black carbon (BC). Interactive parameterizations of the emissions and contrasting particles sizes of SS and DU lead generally to higher diversities of these species, and for total aerosol. The lower diversity of the emissions of the fine aerosols, BC, POM, and SO_4, is due to the use of similar emission inventories, and does therefore not necessarily indicate a better understanding of their sources. The diversity of SO_4-sources is mainly caused by the disagreement on depositional loss of precursor gases and on chemical production. The diversities of the emissions are passed on to the burdens, but the latter are also strongly affected by the model-specific treatments of transport and aerosol processes. The burdens of dry masses decrease from largest to smallest: DU, SS, SO_4, POM, and BC. The all-models-average residence time is shortest for SS with about half a day, followed by S_O4 and DU with four days, and POM and BC with six and seven days, respectively. The wet deposition rate is controlled by the solubility and increases from DU, BC, POM to SO_4 and SS. It is the dominant sink for SO_4, BC, and POM, and contributes about one third to the total removal rate coefficients of SS and DU species. For SS and DU we find high diversities for the removal rate coefficients and deposition pathways. Models do neither agree on the split between wet and dry deposition, nor on that between sedimentation and turbulent dry Deposition. We diagnose an extremely high diversity for the uptake of ambient water vapor that influences the particle size and thus the sink rate coefficients. Furthermore, we find little agreement among the model results for the partitioning of wet removal into scavenging by convective and stratiform rain. Large differences exist for aerosol dispersal both in the vertical and in the horizontal direction. In some models, a minimum of total aerosol concentration is simulated at the surface. Aerosol dispersal is most pronounced for SO4 and BC and lowest for SS. Diversities are higher for meridional than for vertical dispersal, they are similar for a given species and highest for SS and DU. For these two components we do not find a correlation between vertical and meridional aerosol dispersal. In addition the degree of dispersals of SS and DU is not related to their residence times. SO_4, BC, and POM, however, show increased meridional dispersal in models with larger vertical dispersal, and dispersal is larger for longer simulated residence times.
|Additional Information:||© Author(s) 2005. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Received: 31 May 2005 – Accepted: 27 June 2005 – Published: 9 September 2005. This work was supported by the European Projects PHOENICS (Particles of Human Origin Extinguishing “natural” solar radiation In Climate Systems) and CREATE (Construction, use and delivery of a European aerosol database), and the French space agency CNES (Centre National des Etudes Spatiales). The authors would like to thank the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany. Work at PNNL was supported largely by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant NAG5-9531. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830. The work of O. Boucher forms part of the Climate Prediction Programme of the UK Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) under contract PECD 71237.|
|Official Citation:||Textor, C., Schulz, M., Guibert, S., Kinne, S., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., Berntsen, T., Berglen, T., Boucher, O., Chin, M., Dentener, F., Diehl, T., Easter, R., Feichter, H., Fillmore, D., Ghan, S., Ginoux, P., Gong, S., Grini, A., Hendricks, J., Horowitz, L., Huang, P., Isaksen, I., Iversen, T., Kloster, S., Koch, D., Kirkevåg, A., Kristjansson, J. E., Krol, M., Lauer, A., Lamarque, J. F., Liu, X., Montanaro, V., Myhre, G., Penner, J., Pitari, G., Lamarque, J. F., Liu, X., Montanaro, V., Myhre, G., Penner, J., Pitari, G., Reddy, S., Seland, Ø., Stier, P., Takemura, T., and Tie, X.: Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 8331-8420, 2005.|
|Usage Policy:||This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.|
|Deposited By:||George Porter|
|Deposited On:||02 Oct 2009 22:53|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 11:24|
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