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B. and Cannizzo, J. and Cannon, K. and Cao, J. and Cardenas, L. and Casebolt, T. and Castaldi, G. and Cepeda, C. and Chalkley, E. and Charlton, P. and Chatterji, S. and Chelkowski, S. and Chen, Y. and Christensen, N. and Clark, D. and Clark, J. and Cokelaer, T. and Conte, R. and Cook , D. and Corbitt, T. and Coyne, D. and Creighton, J. D. E. and Cumming, A. and Cunningham, L. and Cutler, R. M. and Dalrymple, J. and Danilishin, S. and Danzmann, K. and Davies, G. and DeBra, D. and Degallaix, J. and Degree, M. and Dergachev, V. and Desai, S. and DeSalvo, R. and Dhurandhar, S. and Díaz, M. and Dickson, J. and Dietz, A. and Donovan, F. and Dooley, K. L. and Doomes, E. E. and Drever , R. W. P. and Duke, I. and Dumas, J.-C. and Dupuis, R. J. and Dwyer, J. G. and Echols, C. and Effler, A. and Ehrens, P. and Espinoza, E. and Etzel, T. and Evans, T. and Fairhurst, S. and Fan, Y. and Fazi, D. and Fehrmann, H. and Fejer, M. M. and Finn, L. S. and Flasch, K. and Fotopoulos, N. and Freise, A. and Frey , R. and Fricke, T. and Fritschel, P. and Frolov, V. V. and Fyffe, M. and Garofoli, J. and Gholami, I. and Giaime, J. A. and Giampanis, S. and Giardina, K. D. and Goda, K. and Goetz, E. and Goggin, L. and González, G. and Gossler, S. and Gouaty, R. and Grant, A. and Gras, S. and Gray, C. and Gray , M. and Greenhalgh, R. J. S. and Gretarsson, A. M. and Grimaldi, F. and Grosso, R. and Grote, H. and Grunewald, S. and Guenther, M. and Gustafson, E. K. and Gustafson, R. and Hage, B. and Hallam, J. M. and Hammer, D. and Hanna, C. and Hanson, J. and Harms, J. and Harry, G. and Harstad, E. and Hayama, K. and Hayler, T. and Heefner, J. and Heng, I. S. and Hennessy, M. and Heptonstall, A. and Hewitson, M. and Hild, S. and Hirose, E. and Hoak, D. and Hosken, D. and Hough, J. and Huttner, S. H. and Ingram, D. and Ivanov, A. and Johnson, B. and Johnson, W. W. and Jones, D. I. and Jones , G. and Jones, R. and Ju, L. and Kalmus, P. and Kalogera, V. and Kamat, S. and Kanner, J. and Kasprzyk, D. and Katsavounidis, E. and Kawabe, K. and Kawamura, S. and Kawazoe, F. and Kells, W. and Keppel, D. G. and Khalili, F. Ya. and Khan , R. and Khazanov, E. and Kim, C. and King, P. and Kissel, J. S. and Klimenko, S. and Kokeyama, K. and Kondrashov, V. and Kopparapu, R. K. and Kozak, D. and Kozhevatov, I. and Krishnan, B. and Kwee, P. and Lam, P. K. and Landry, M. and Lang, M. M. and Lantz, B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lei, M. and Leindecker, N. and Leonhardt, V. and Leonor, I. and Libbrecht, K. and Lin, H. and Lindquist, P. and Lockerbie, N. A. and Lodhia, D. and Lormand, M. and Lu , P. and Lubinski, M. and Lucianetti, A. and Lück, H. and Machenschalk, B. and MacInnis, M. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Mandic, V. and Márka, S. and Márka, Z. and Markosyan, A. and Markowitz, J. and Maros, E. and Martin, I. and Martin, R. M. and Marx, J. 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J. and Wallace, L. and Ward, H. and Ward, R. and Weinert, M. and Weiss, R. and Wen, S. and Wette, K. and Whelan, J. T. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Whiting , B. F. and Wilkinson, C. and Willems, P. A. and Williams, H. R. and Williams, L. and Willke, B. and Wilmut, I. and Winkler, W. and Wipf, C. C. and Wiseman, A. G. and Woan, G. and Wooley, R. and Worden, J. and Wu, W. and Yakushin, I. and Yamamoto, H. and Yan, Z. and Yoshida, S. and Zanolin, M. and Zhang, J. and Zhang, L. and Zhao, C. and Zotov, N. and Zucker, M. and Zweizig, J. and Weinstein, Alan J. (2009) Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state. New Journal of Physics, 11 (7). Art. No. 073032. ISSN 1367-2630. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20090923-115151991
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We introduce a novel cooling technique capable of approaching the quantum ground state of a kilogram-scale system—an interferometric gravitational wave detector. The detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) operate within a factor of 10 of the standard quantum limit (SQL), providing a displacement sensitivity of 10^(−18) m in a 100 Hz band centered on 150 Hz. With a new feedback strategy, we dynamically shift the resonant frequency of a 2.7 kg pendulum mode to lie within this optimal band, where its effective temperature falls as low as 1.4 μK, and its occupation number reaches about 200 quanta. This work shows how the exquisite sensitivity necessary to detect gravitational waves can be made available to probe the validity of quantum mechanics on an enormous mass scale.
|Additional Information:||© 2009 Institute of Physics. Received 20 February 2009; published 16 July 2009.|
|Official Citation:||Observation of a kilogram-scale oscillator near its quantum ground state B Abbott, R Abbott, R Adhikari, P Ajith, B Allen, G Allen, R Amin, S B Anderson, W G Anderson, M A Arain, M Araya, H Armandula, P Armor, Y Aso, S Aston, P Aufmuth, C Aulbert, S Babak, S Ballmer, H Bantilan, B C Barish, C Barker, D Barker, B Barr, P Barriga, M A Barton, M Bastarrika, K Bayer, J Betzwieser, P T Beyersdorf, I A Bilenko, G Billingsley, R Biswas, E Black, K Blackburn, L Blackburn, D Blair, B Bland, T P Bodiya, L Bogue, R Bork, V Boschi, S Bose, P R Brady, V B Braginsky, J E Brau, M Brinkmann, A Brooks, D A Brown, G Brunet, A Bullington, A Buonanno, O Burmeister, R L Byer, L Cadonati, G Cagnoli, J B Camp, J Cannizzo, K Cannon, J Cao, L Cardenas, T Casebolt, G Castaldi, C Cepeda, E Chalkley, P Charlton, S Chatterji, S Chelkowski, Y Chen, N Christensen, D Clark, J Clark, T Cokelaer, R Conte, D Cook, T Corbitt, D Coyne, J D E Creighton, A Cumming, L Cunningham, R M Cutler, J Dalrymple, S Danilishin, K Danzmann, G Davies, D DeBra, J Degallaix, M Degree, V Dergachev, S Desai, R DeSalvo, S Dhurandhar, M Díaz, J Dickson, A Dietz, F Donovan, K L Dooley, E E Doomes, R W P Drever, I Duke, J-C Dumas, R J Dupuis, J G Dwyer, C Echols, A Effler, P Ehrens, E Espinoza, T Etzel, T Evans, S Fairhurst, Y Fan, D Fazi, H Fehrmann, M M Fejer, L S Finn, K Flasch, N Fotopoulos, A Freise, R Frey, T Fricke, P Fritschel, V V Frolov, M Fyffe, J Garofoli, I Gholami, J A Giaime, S Giampanis, K D Giardina, K Goda, E Goetz, L Goggin, G González, S Gossler, R Gouaty, A Grant, S Gras, C Gray, M Gray, R J S Greenhalgh, A M Gretarsson, F Grimaldi, R Grosso, H Grote, S Grunewald, M Guenther, E K Gustafson, R Gustafson, B Hage, J M Hallam, D Hammer, C Hanna, J Hanson, J Harms, G Harry, E Harstad, K Hayama, T Hayler, J Heefner, I S Heng, M Hennessy, A Heptonstall, M Hewitson, S Hild, E Hirose, D Hoak, D Hosken, J Hough, S H Huttner, D Ingram, M Ito, A Ivanov, B Johnson, W W Johnson, D I Jones, G Jones, R Jones, L Ju, P Kalmus, V Kalogera, S Kamat, J Kanner, D Kasprzyk, E Katsavounidis, K Kawabe, S Kawamura, F Kawazoe, W Kells, D G Keppel, F Ya Khalili, R Khan, E Khazanov, C Kim, P King, J S Kissel, S Klimenko, K Kokeyama, V Kondrashov, R K Kopparapu, D Kozak, I Kozhevatov, B Krishnan, P Kwee, P K Lam, M Landry, M M Lang, B Lantz, A Lazzarini, M Lei, N Leindecker, V Leonhardt, I Leonor, K Libbrecht, H Lin, P Lindquist, N A Lockerbie, D Lodhia, M Lormand, P Lu, M Lubinski, A Lucianetti, H Lück, B Machenschalk, M MacInnis, M Mageswaran, K Mailand, V Mandic, S Márka, Z Márka, A Markosyan, J Markowitz, E Maros, I Martin, R M Martin, J N Marx, K Mason, F Matichard, L Matone, R Matzner, N Mavalvala, R McCarthy, D E McClelland, S C McGuire, M McHugh, G McIntyre, G McIvor, D McKechan, K McKenzie, T Meier, A Melissinos, G Mendell, R A Mercer, S Meshkov, C J Messenger, D Meyers, H Miao, J Miller, J Minelli, S Mitra, V P Mitrofanov, G Mitselmakher, R Mittleman, O Miyakawa, B Moe, S Mohanty, G Moreno, K Mossavi, C Mow-Lowry, G Mueller, S Mukherjee, H Mukhopadhyay, H Müller-Ebhardt, J Munch, P Murray, E Myers, J Myers, T Nash, J Nelson, G Newton, A Nishizawa, K Numata, J O'Dell, G Ogin, B O'Reilly, R O'Shaughnessy, D J Ottaway, R S Ottens, H Overmier, B J Owen, Y Pan, C Pankow, M A Papa, V Parameshwaraiah, P Patel, M Pedraza, S Penn, A Perreca, T Petrie, I M Pinto, M Pitkin, H J Pletsch, M V Plissi, F Postiglione, M Principe, R Prix, V Quetschke, F Raab, D S Rabeling, H Radkins, N Rainer, M Rakhmanov, M Ramsunder, H Rehbein, S Reid, D H Reitze, R Riesen, K Riles, B Rivera, N A Robertson, C Robinson, E L Robinson, S Roddy, A Rodriguez, A M Rogan, J Rollins, J D Romano, J Romie, R Route, S Rowan, A Rüdiger, L Ruet, P Russell, K Ryan, S Sakata, M Samidi, L Sancho de la Jordana, V Sandberg, V Sannibale, S Saraf, P Sarin, B S Sathyaprakash, S Sato, P R Saulson, R Savage, P Savov, S W Schediwy, R Schilling, R Schnabel, R Schofield, B F Schutz, P Schwinberg, S M Scott, A C Searle, B Sears, F Seifert, D Sellers, A S Sengupta, P Shawhan, D H Shoemaker, A Sibley, X Siemens, D Sigg, S Sinha, A M Sintes, B J J Slagmolen, J Slutsky, J R Smith, M R Smith, N D Smith, K Somiya, B Sorazu, L C Stein, A Stochino, R Stone, K A Strain, D M Strom, A Stuver, T Z Summerscales, K-X Sun, M Sung, P J Sutton, H Takahashi, D B Tanner, R Taylor, R Taylor, J Thacker, K A Thorne, K S Thorne, A Thüring, K V Tokmakov, C Torres, C Torrie, G Traylor, M Trias, W Tyler, D Ugolini, J Ulmen, K Urbanek, H Vahlbruch, C Van Den Broeck, M van der Sluys, S Vass, R Vaulin, A Vecchio, J Veitch, P Veitch, A Villar, C Vorvick, S P Vyatchanin, S J Waldman, L Wallace, H Ward, R Ward, M Weinert, A Weinstein, R Weiss, S Wen, K Wette, J T Whelan, S E Whitcomb, B F Whiting, C Wilkinson, P A Willems, H R Williams, L Williams, B Willke, I Wilmut, W Winkler, C C Wipf, A G Wiseman, G Woan, R Wooley, J Worden, W Wu, I Yakushin, H Yamamoto, Z Yan, S Yoshida, M Zanolin, J Zhang, L Zhang, C Zhao, N Zotov, M Zucker and J Zweizig (LIGO Scientific Collaboration) 2009 New J. Phys. 11 073032 (13pp) doi: 10.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073032|
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|Deposited By:||Jason Perez|
|Deposited On:||25 Sep 2009 19:51|
|Last Modified:||11 Sep 2014 17:19|
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