Vecitis, Chad D. and Park, Hyunwoong and Cheng, Jie and Mader , Brian T. and Hoffmann, Michael R. (2009) Treatment technologies for aqueous perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering in China, 3 (2). pp. 129-151. ISSN 1673-7520 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20091022-115846361
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Fluorochemicals (FCs) are oxidatively recalcitrant, environmentally persistent, and resistant to most conventional treatment technologies. FCs have unique physiochemical properties derived from fluorine which is the most electronegative element. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been detected globally in the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Reducing treatment technologies such as reverses osmosis, nano-filtration and activated carbon can remove FCs from water. However, incineration of the concentrated waste is required for complete FC destruction. Recently, a number of alternative technologies for FC decomposition have been reported. The FC degradation technologies span a wide range of chemical processes including direct photolysis, photocatalytic oxidation, photochemical oxidation, photochemical reduction, thermally-induced reduction, and sonochemical pyrolysis. This paper reviews these FC degradation technologies in terms of kinetics, mechanism, energetic cost, and applicability. The optimal PFOS/PFOA treatment method is strongly dependent upon the FC concentration, background organic and metal concentration, and available degradation time.
|Additional Information:||© 2009 Springer. Received: 23 November 2008; accepted: 10 March 2009; published online: 27 May 2009. The authors thank the 3M Company for the research support, including the donation to Caltech of analytical standards and an Agilent LC-MS-Ion Trap mass spectrometer. The authors also thank Dr. Nathan Dalleska of the Environmental Analytical Center.|
|Subject Keywords:||fluorochemical (FC) degradation technologies; perfluoroctanesulfonate (PFOS); perfluorooctanoate (PFOA); oxidation; reduction; photolysis; thermolysis; review|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Jason Perez|
|Deposited On:||22 Oct 2009 22:58|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 11:30|
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