Heydari, Ezat and Arzani, N. and Hassanzadeh, J. (2009) Reply to comment on "Mantle plume: the invisible serial killer — Application to the Permian–Triassic boundary mass extinction". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 283 (1-2). pp. 102-105. ISSN 0031-0182 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100108-112203971
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In a recent article, Heydari et al. (2008) suggested that the perturbation at the Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) was initiated by processes associated with an end-Permian mantle plume including igneous intrusions and uplift. These events resulted in the massive release of CH_4 primarily from the dissociation of marine gas hydrates, and secondarily from maturation of organic-rich sediments and fracturing of petroleum reservoirs. Injection of CH_4 into the ocean changed seawater composition (the acid-bath ocean) leading to marine mass extinction. Transfer of CO_2 and CH_4 from the ocean to the atmosphere created a hot climate (the end-Permian inferno) which caused the terrestrial mass extinction. We suggested that the Siberian trap volcanism and marine anoxia played little role in this catastrophe. Wignall and Racki (2009-this issue) have raised three criticisms to our article. The first is that our interpretation has been previously advocated by others. Our re-evaluation indicates that our interpretation was in fact opposite of those considered by Wignall and Racki (2009-this issue) to have presented scenarios similar to ours. The second, Wignall and Racki (2009-this issue) also suggest that our proposed change in carbonate mineralogy across the PTB did not occur because such a change "should produce a large positive excursion rather than the observed negative excursion". Wignall and Racki (2009-this issue) have made a basic mathematical error in evaluating the effect of carbonate mineralogy on δ^(13)C values. Therefore, they have reached two wrong conclusions: one about the validity of a change in carbonate mineralogy and the other regarding its effect on the shift in δ^(13)C values at the PTB. A change in carbonate mineralogy produced a larger negative excursion rather than a positive shift. The third, Wignall and Racki (2009-this issue) indicate that the PTB ocean was anoxic to the rim. This criticismis not supported by the rock record because highly bioturbated stratawere deposited in environments ranging from shallow shelves to deep waters under oxygenated water column at the time of the PTB mass extinction. If the ocean were totally stratified for 20Ma, and if anoxia extended all the way to the shoreline, and if the ocean were anoxic to the rim and H_2S were oozing out of it, then we should see at least 100 m of organic-rich, varvedlaminated strata in areas ranging from the abyssal plain to the shoreline environments. Such strata have not yet been found.
|Additional Information:||© 2009 Elsevier. Received 29 May 2009. Received in revised form 7 August 2009. Accepted 3 September 2009. Available online 12 September 2009.|
|Official Citation:||Ezat Heydari, N. Arzani, J. Hassanzadeh, Reply to comment on 'Mantle plume: the invisible serial killer -- Application to the Permian-Triassic boundary mass extinction' by E. Heydari, N. Arzani and J. Hassanzadeh [Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 264 (2008) 147-162], Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 283, Issues 1-2, 1 December 2009, Pages 102-105, ISSN 0031-0182, DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.09.003.|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Joy Painter|
|Deposited On:||08 Jan 2010 20:08|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 11:40|
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