Parise, B. and Leurini, S. and Schilke, P. and Roueff, E. and Thorwirth, S. and Lis, D. C. (2009) Deuterium chemistry in the Orion Bar PDR “Warm” chemistry starring CH_2D^+. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 508 (2). pp. 737-749. ISSN 0004-6361 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100127-111134490
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Context. High levels of deuterium fractionation in gas-phase molecules are usually associated with cold regions, such as prestellar cores. Significant fractionation ratios are also observed in hot environments such as hot cores or hot corinos, where they are believed to be produced by the evaporation of the icy mantles surrounding dust grains, and are thus remnants of a previous cold (either gasphase or grain surface) chemistry. The recent detection of DCN towards the Orion Bar, in a clump at a characteristic temperature of 70 K, has shown that high deuterium fractionation can also be detected in PDRs. The Orion Bar clumps thus appear to be a good environment for the observational study of deuterium fractionation in luke warm gas, allowing us to validate chemistry models for a different temperature range, where dominating fractionation processes are predicted to differ from those in cold gas (< 20K). Aims. We aimed to study observationally in detail the chemistry at work in the Orion Bar PDR, to understand whether DCN is either produced by ice mantle evaporation or is the result of warm gas-phase chemistry, involving the CH_2D^+ precursor ion (which survives higher temperatures than the usual H_2D^+ precursor). Methods. Using the APEX and the IRAM 30m telescopes, we targeted selected deuterated species towards two clumps in the Orion Bar. Results. We confirmed the detection of DCN and detected two new deuterated molecules (DCO^+ and HDCO) towards one clump in the Orion Bar PDR. Significant deuterium fractionations are found for HCN and H_2CO, but we measured a low fractionation in HCO^+. We also provide upper limits to other molecules relevant to deuterium chemistry. Conclusions. We argue that grain evaporation in the clumps is unlikely to be a dominant process, and we find that the observed deuterium fractionation ratios are consistent with predictions of pure gas-phase chemistry models at warm temperatures (T ~ 50K). We show evidence that warm deuterium chemistry driven by CH_2D^+ is at work in the clumps.
|Additional Information:||© ESO 2009. Received 26 June 2009. Accepted 18 September 2009. We are very grateful to the APEX staff, in particular P. Bergman and A. Lundgren, for performing part of the APEX observations presented here. B.P. thanks M. Wernli for providing the HCN-He collision rates before publication, and for enlightening discussions. B.P. acknowledges fruitful discussions with A.G.G.M. Tielens and R. Garrod, and enlightening comments on statistics from Edward Polehampton and Didier Pelat. This work was funded by a Alexander von Humboldt research fellowship and by the German Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG Emmy Noether project number PA1692/1- 1. D.C. Lis is supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, award AST- 0540882 to the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory.|
|Subject Keywords:||astrochemistry; line: identification; line: formation; ISM: abundances; ISM: individual objects: Orion Bar; ISM: molecules|
|Official Citation:||Deuterium chemistry in the Orion Bar PDR - “Warm” chemistry starring CH2D+ B. Parise, S. Leurini, P. Schilke, E. Roueff, S. Thorwirth and D. C. Lis A&A 508 (2) 737-749 (2009) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912774|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Tony Diaz|
|Deposited On:||28 Jan 2010 19:33|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 11:43|
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