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A. and Westerhoff, S. and Whelan, B. J. and Wieczorek, G. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyńska, B. and Wilczyński, H. and Williams, C. and Winchen, T. and Winnick, M. G. and Wundheiler, B. and Yamamoto, T. and Younk, P. and Yuan, G. and Yushkov, A. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zaw, I. and Zepeda, A. and Ziolkowski, M. (2010) Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 10^(18) eV. Physical Review Letters, 104 (9). Art. No.091101. ISSN 0031-9007 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100415-075729464
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We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X_(max), of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10^(18) eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106_(-21)^(+35)) g/cm^2/decade below 10^(18:24±0.05) eV, and (24±3) g/cm^ 2=decade above this energy. The measured shower-to-shower fluctuations decrease from about 55 to 26 g/cm^2. The interpretation of these results in terms of the cosmic ray mass composition is briefly discussed.
|Additional Information:||© 2010 The American Physical Society. Received 7 December 2009; published 1 March 2010. The successful installation and commissioning of the Pierre Auger Observatory would not have been possible without the strong commitment and effort from the technical and administrative staff in Malargüe. We are very grateful to the following agencies and organizations for financial support: Comisiόn Nacional de Energía Atόmica, Fundaciόn Antorchas, Gobierno De La Provincia de Mendoza, Municipalidad de Malargüe, NDM Holdings, and Valle Las Leñas, in gratitude for their continuing cooperation over land access, Argentina; the Australian Research Council; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnolόgico (CNPq), Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Ministério de Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT), Brazil; AVCR AV0Z10100502 and AV0Z10100522, GAAV KJB300100801 and KJB100100904, MSMT-CR LA08016, LC527, 1M06002, and MSM0021620859, Czech Republic; Centre de Calcul IN2P3/CNRS, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Conseil Régional Ile-de-France, Département Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire (PNC-IN2P3/CNRS), Département Sciences de l’Univers (SDU-INSU/CNRS), France; Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Finanzministerium Baden-Württemberg, Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF), Ministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Ministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst, Baden-Württemberg, Germany; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), Italy; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), Mexico; Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM), Netherlands; Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Grant No. 1 P03 D 014 30, No. N202 090 31/0623, and No. PAP/218/2006, Poland; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal; Ministry for Higher Education, Science, and Technology, Slovenian Research Agency, Slovenia; Comunidad de Madrid, Consejería de Educaciόn de la Comunidad de Castilla La Mancha, FEDER funds, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaciόn, Xunta de Galicia, Spain; Science and Technology Facilities Council, United Kingdom; Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC02- 07CH11359, No. DE-FR02-04ER41300, National Science Foundation, Grant No. 0450696, The Grainger Foundation USA; ALFA-EC/HELEN, European Union 6th Framework Program, Grant No. MEIF-CT-2005- 025057, European Union 7th Framework Program, Grant No. PIEF-GA-2008-220240, and UNESCO.|
|Classification Code:||PACS: 96.50.sd, 13.85.Tp, 96.50.sb, 98.70.Sa|
|Official Citation:||Pierre Auger, C., J. Abraham, et al. (2010). "Measurement of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers above 1018 eV." Physical Review Letters 104(9): 091101.|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Ruth Sustaita|
|Deposited On:||14 May 2010 18:37|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 11:58|
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