Huss, David and Navaluri, Rena and Faulkner, Kathleen F. and Dickman, J. David (2010) Development of otolith receptors in Japanese quail. Developmental Neurobiology, 70 (6). pp. 436-455. ISSN 1932-8451 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100603-083905182
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This study examined the morphological development of the otolith vestibular receptors in quail. Here, we describe epithelial growth, hair cell density, stereocilia polarization, and afferent nerve innervation during development. The otolith maculae epithelial areas increased exponentially throughout embryonic development reaching asymptotic values near posthatch day P7. Increases in hair cell density were dependent upon macular location; striolar hair cells developed first followed by hair cells in extrastriola regions. Stereocilia polarization was initiated early, with defining reversal zones forming at E8. Less than half of all immature hair cells observed had nonpolarized internal kinocilia with the remaining exhibiting planar polarity. Immunohistochemistry and neural tracing techniques were employed to examine the shape and location of the striolar regions. Initial innervation of the maculae was by small fibers with terminal growth cones at E6, followed by collateral branches with apparent bouton terminals at E8. Calyceal terminal formation began at E10; however, no mature calyces were observed until E12, when all fibers appeared to be dimorphs. Calyx afferents innervating only Type I hair cells did not develop until E14. Finally, the topographic organization of afferent macular innervation in the adult quail utricle was quantified. Calyx and dimorph afferents were primarily confined to the striolar regions, while bouton fibers were located in the extrastriola and Type II band. Calyx fibers were the least complex, followed by dimorph units. Bouton fibers had large innervation fields, with arborous branches and many terminal boutons.
|Additional Information:||© 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Received 5 November 2009; revised 5 February 2010; accepted 6 February 2010. Published online 12 February 2010. Contract grant sponsor: National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders; contract grant numbers: R01 DC003286, R01 DC007618. Contract grant sponsor: National Aeronautics and Space Administration; contract grant number: NNA04CC52G. The authors thank Mark Warchol for valuable discussions. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.|
|Subject Keywords:||vestibular; motion detection; spatial orientation; gravity perception|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Tony Diaz|
|Deposited On:||18 Jun 2010 18:08|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 12:06|
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