Fradkin, Eduardo and Kivelson, Steven A. and Lawler, Michael J. and Eisenstein, James P. and Mackenzie, Andrew P. (2010) Nematic Fermi Fluids in Condensed Matter Physics. Annual Review of Condensed Matter Physics , 1 . pp. 153-178. ISSN 1947-5454 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101025-095402593
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Correlated electron fluids can exhibit a startling array of complex phases, among which one of the more surprising is the electron nematic, a translationally invariant metallic phase with a spontaneously generated spatial anisotropy. Classical nematics generally occur in liquids of rod-like molecules; given that electrons are point like, the initial theoretical motivation for contemplating electron nematics came from thinking of the electron fluid as a quantum melted electron crystal, rather than a strongly interacting descendent of a Fermi gas. Dramatic transport experiments in ultra-clean quantum Hall systems in 1999 and in Sr_3Ru_2O_7 in a strong magnetic field in 2007 established that such phases exist in nature. In this article, we briefly review the theoretical considerations governing nematic order, summarize the quantum Hall and Sr_3Ru_2O_7 experiments that unambiguously establish the existence of this phase, and survey some of the current evidence for such a phase in the cuprate and Fe-based high temperature superconductors.
|Additional Information:||© 2010 Annual Reviews. First published online as a Review in Advance on May 4, 2010. We thank E. Berg, H.-Y. Kee, E.-A. Kim, V. Oganesyan, K. Sun, J. Tranquada, and C. Wu for great discussions. E.F., M.J.L., and S.A.K. thank the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP) of the University of California Santa Barbara for hospitality under the Physics of Higher Temperature Superconductivity program. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, under grants DMR 0758462 at the University of Illinois (E.F.), DMR 0531196 at Stanford University (S.A.K.), PHY05-51164 at KITP (E.F., M.J.L., S.A.K.), and DMR-0070890 and DMR-0242946 at Caltech (J.P.E.); by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, under contracts DE-FG02-07ER46453 through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois (E.F.), DE-FG02-06ER46287 through the Geballe Laboratory of Advanced Materials at Stanford University (S.A.K.), and DE-FG03-99ER45766 at Caltech (J.P.E.); and by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council under grant EP/F044704/1 (A.P.M.).|
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|Deposited By:||Tony Diaz|
|Deposited On:||19 Nov 2010 23:21|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 12:33|
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