Russeil, D. and Pestalozzi, M. and Mottram, J. C. and Bontemps, S. and Anderson, L. D. and Zavagno, A. and Beltrán, M. T. and Bally, J. and Brand, J. and Brunt, C. and Cesaroni, R. and Joncas, G. and Marshall, D. and Martin, P. and Massi, F. and Molinari, S. and Moore, T. and Noriega-Crespo, A. and Olmi, L. and Thompson, M. A. and Wienen, M. and Wyrowski, F. (2011) Giving physical significance to the Hi-GAL data: determining the distance of cold dusty cores in the Milky Way. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 526 . Art. No. A151. ISSN 0004-6361 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110222-150908233
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Context. Hi-GAL, an open time key-project of the Herschel satellite, was awarded 343 hours observing time to carry out a 5-band photometric imaging survey at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 µm of a │b│≤ 1° wide strip of the Milky Way Galactic plane in the longitude range -70° ≤ l ≤ 70°. Two 2° x 2° fields centred at l = 30° and l = 59° have been observed with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode during the Herschel science demonstration phase (SDP). From the images, compact sources are extracted for which the distance must be established in order to determine their physical properties. Aims. The aim of this paper is to present the distance determination strategy for the Hi-GAL compact sources. We illustrate this strategy for the two fields at l = 30° and l = 59°. Methods. The first step to determine the distance is to establish the LSR (local standard of rest) velocity of each compact source. The kinematic distance is then determined assuming a rotation curve for our Galaxy. To resolve the distance ambiguity for sources within the solar circle, we adopt a multiwavelength approach combining extinction maps, optical, and near infrared images, and velocity information from NH_3, CO and HI data. When sources can be kinematically linked to optical H II regions, the stellar distance of the exciting stars, when known, can be attributed to all linked sources. Results. In the two 2°x 2° SDP fields, 2678 compact sources have been identified and listed in the band-merged catalogue. About 93% of these sources have been assigned a radial velocity and distance. Conclusions. A multiwavelength approach is necessary to assign the correct velocity to sources (especially when CO spectra have a lot of features) and to determine the distance by solving the distance ambiguity. Also, several Hi-GAL sources seem to be in the interarm region. These sources have to be investigated with dedicated programme to be compared with sources located in the spiral arms.
|Additional Information:||© 2011 ESO. Received 1 October 2010; Accepted 26 November 2010. Published online 13 January 2011. Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic plane Survey) is a Herschel key-project. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. We thank C. Persson for her active participation in the NH3 observations. We thank N. Wright from the IPHAS project for processing the Hα mosaic image of Sh2-86. We thank the referee, Professor M. Burton, for his useful comments and remarks. The paper is partly based on observations with the Medicina telescope operated by INAF – Istituto di radioastronomia and Onsala telescope operated by Swedish National Facility for Radio Astronomy. Part of this work was supported by the ANR (Agence Nationale pour la Recherche) project “PROBeS”, number ANR-08-BLAN-0241. Part of this work was done thanks to SIMBAD at CDS. The VGPS is supported by a grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and from the US National Science Foundation. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.|
|Subject Keywords:||Galaxy: structure; Galaxy: general; infrared: general; infrared: ISM; H II regions; ISM: clouds|
|Official Citation:||Giving physical significance to the Hi-GAL data: determining the distance of cold dusty cores in the Milky Way A151 D. Russeil et al. Published online: 13 January 2011 DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201015852|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Ruth Sustaita|
|Deposited On:||23 Feb 2011 17:22|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 12:57|
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