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Mechanistic investigations of nanometer-scale lithography at liquid-covered graphite surfaces

Penner, Reginald M. and Heben, Michael J. and Lewis, Nathan S. and Quate, Calvin F. (1991) Mechanistic investigations of nanometer-scale lithography at liquid-covered graphite surfaces. Applied Physics Letters, 58 (13). pp. 1389-1391. ISSN 0003-6951. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:PENapl91b

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Abstract

Pulse-induced nanometer-scale lithography has been performed on graphite surfaces that were in contact with pure water or other organic liquids. Very reproducible control over the pit diameter was observed in aqueous solutions, and a well-defined voltage threshold (4.0±0.2 V) was also apparent. Near the threshold voltage, 7 Å diameter×2 Å high protrusions were formed, while larger initial pulse voltages resulted in pits of diameter>~20 Å.


Item Type:Article
Additional Information:© 1991 American Institute of Physics. (Received 13 September 1990; accepted 2 January 1991) We acknowledge the Caltech Consortium in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Founding Members: E. I. du Pont de Nemours, Eastman Kodak, 3M, and Shell Development Co. and the Joint Services Electronics Program for support of this work, and Dr. A. Moore of Union Carbide for a generous donation of HOPG. J. Jahanmir at QuanScan Inc. is acknowledged for assistance with Z calibration of the piezo using interferometry. The authors also thank M. Dovek and M. Kirk of Stanford University for valuable conversations regarding experimental results in gaseous ambients. This is contribution No. 8201 from the Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Caltech.
Subject Keywords:GRAPHITE; SORPTIVE PROPERTIES; LITHOGRAPHY; WATER; THRESHOLD VOLTAGE; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; SOLID–FLUID INTERFACES; SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:PENapl91b
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:PENapl91b
Alternative URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.104317
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:2422
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:03 Apr 2006
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 08:49

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