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Relations of pp′ groups in atoms of the same electronic structure

Bowen, I. S. and Millikan, R. A. (1925) Relations of pp′ groups in atoms of the same electronic structure. Physical Review, 26 (2). pp. 150-164. ISSN 0031-899X. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:BOWpr25c

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Abstract

Pp′ groups of spectral lines.—(1) For two-valence-electron atoms. A quintuplet of nearly equally spaced lines (really an unresolved sextuplet) has now been found for all the two-valence electron spectra which have been studied by the method of hot-spark spectroscopy, namely for the series MgI, AlII, SiIII, PIV, SV, ClVI, and for BeI, BII, CIII, NIV and OV. In both of these series, this pp′ group has been definitely shown to arise from an electron jump from the lowest p to the lowest s orbit, combined with a simultaneous jump of the other electron between the p1, p2, p3 orbits. The frequency differences between groups of successive atoms obey the irregular doublet law, showing that the jumps are between levels of the same total quantum number. (2) For three-valence-electron atoms. A new quadruplet pp′ group has been discovered for all the atoms of this type studied, AlI, SiII, PIII, SIV, ClV and CII, NIII, OIV. The relative intensity of this group increases with the effective nuclear charge, from AlI to ClV. This group is proved to be due to the return of one of the s electrons after displacement to a p position combined with the simultaneous interchange of the p electron between the p1, p2 orbits. This group also obeys the irregular doublet law. These groups are of exceptional theoretical interest because their existence proves that the energy changes due to the simultaneous jumping of two electrons between orbits, are integrated into monochromatic radiation. The mechanism by which such an integration takes place is at present a complete mystery. Multiplicity of ionization potentials.—The ionization potential must depend on the state in which the ionized atom is left after removing an s electron, for example, and will differ according as the p electron is left in the p1, p2, p3 or P orbit.


Item Type:Article
Additional Information:©1925 The American Physical Society. Received 4 April 1925.
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:BOWpr25c
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:BOWpr25c
Alternative URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.26.150
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:2433
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Apr 2006
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 08:49

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