Huggins, Maurice L. (1926) Evidence from crystal structures in regard to atomic structures. Physical Review, 27 (3). pp. 286-297. ISSN 0031-899X. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:HUGpr26
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The distribution of valence electrons in the diamond and similar crystals.—Because of the cubical symmetry, the equivalent scattering power of all the atoms, and the absence of pyro- and piezo-electric effect, the atoms in the diamond cannot be held together as a result of the transfer of electrons from atom to atom. Symmetry requirements also eliminate any cubical arrangement of electrons or orbits around each atom. The diamagnetism of H2 and of most organic compounds eliminates rotations of two electrons or orbits in the same direction about each atomic center-line as a means of holding the atoms together. Similar structures and numbers of valence electrons, together with interatomic distance comparisons, indicate that the atoms in BeO, ZnO, ZnS, CdS, AgI, etc., are held together in a manner similar to that in the diamond. If so, there cannot be four electrons rotating around each atomic kernel in the diamond, for Zn--, Ag---, O++ etc., are chemically impossible. It is not possible for two electrons to be rotating about each two adjacent atomic kernels in crystals of NaCl, MgO, CdO, AgBr, etc., and since chemically and physically these are not very different from BeO, CdS, AgI, etc., the bonds in the last named crystals and so in the diamond are probably not of this type. The conclusion is therefore reached that in the diamond and crystals of similar structure, the electrons are in pairs at tetrahedron corners around each atom, each pair being held jointly by two atoms. This is as predicted from the Lewis theory of valence. A study of the other known crystal structures leads to the conclusion that in general the valence shells of electro-negative atoms are tetrahedra of electron pairs rather than cubes of single electrons.
|Additional Information:||©1926 The American Physical Society. Received 10 April 1925. In conclusion the author wishes to express his thanks to Professor D. L. Webster of Stanford University for his valuable criticism.|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Tony Diaz|
|Deposited On:||04 Apr 2006|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 08:49|
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