Tocheva, Elitza I. and Matson, Eric G. and Morris, Dylan M. and Moussavi, Farshid and Leadbetter, Jared R. and Jensen, Grant J. (2011) Peptidoglycan Remodeling and Conversion of an Inner Membrane into an Outer Membrane during Sporulation. Cell, 146 (5). pp. 799-812. ISSN 0092-8674 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110928-072623751
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Two hallmarks of the Firmicute phylum, which includes the Bacilli and Clostridia classes, are their ability to form endospores and their “Gram-positive” single-membraned, thick-cell-wall envelope structure. Acetonema longum is part of a lesser-known family (the Veillonellaceae) of Clostridia that form endospores but that are surprisingly “Gram negative,” possessing both an inner and outer membrane and a thin cell wall. Here, we present macromolecular resolution, 3D electron cryotomographic images of vegetative, sporulating, and germinating A. longum cells showing that during the sporulation process, the inner membrane of the mother cell is inverted and transformed to become the outer membrane of the germinating cell. Peptidoglycan persists throughout, leading to a revised, “continuous” model of its role in the process. Coupled with genomic analyses, these results point to sporulation as a mechanism by which the bacterial outer membrane may have arisen and A. longum as a potential “missing link” between single- and double-membraned bacteria.
|Additional Information:||© 2011 Elsevier Inc. Received 2 November 2010; revised 25 May 2011; Accepted 9 July 2011. Published: September 1, 2011. Available online 1 September 2011. We thank Alasdair McDowall and Mark Ladinsky for their help with the preparation of mature spores by traditional EM methods and Dr. Martin Pilhofer for helping with the immunofluorescence and western blotting experiments. The GC-MS analysis of LPS was performed at the Complex Carbohydrate Research Center and was supported by DOE grant DE-FG02-09ER20097. We thank Everett Kane for the generation of Movie S2 and Jane H. Ding for helping with the generation of Movie S1 and Movie S2. We thank Ivan Tochev for generating Figure 4B. We thank Dr. Stephen Quake and Richard White at Stanford University for performing the shotgun genome sequencing of A. longum. The authors gratefully acknowledge the IGS annotation engine. This work was supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Postdoctorate Fellowship (to E.I.T.), the Howard Hughes Medical Foundation, and gifts to Caltech from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, including support for the Caltech Center for Integrative Study of Cell Regulation. E.G.M was supported by the Department of Energy (award DE-FG02-07ER64484 to J.R.L).|
|Official Citation:||Elitza I. Tocheva, Eric G. Matson, Dylan M. Morris, Farshid Moussavi, Jared R. Leadbetter, Grant J. Jensen, Peptidoglycan Remodeling and Conversion of an Inner Membrane into an Outer Membrane during Sporulation, Cell, Volume 146, Issue 5, 2 September 2011, Pages 799-812, ISSN 0092-8674, 10.1016/j.cell.2011.07.029. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867411008270)|
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|Deposited By:||Ruth Sustaita|
|Deposited On:||28 Sep 2011 15:05|
|Last Modified:||28 Sep 2011 15:05|
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