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Turbulent buoyant jets into stratified or flowing ambient fluids

Fan, Loh-Nien (1967) Turbulent buoyant jets into stratified or flowing ambient fluids. California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA. (Unpublished)

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Theoretical and experimental studies were made on two classes of buoyant jet problems, namely: 1) an inclined, round buoyant jet in a stagnant environment with linear density-stratification; 2) a round buoyant jet in a uniform cross stream of homogeneous density. Using the integral technique of analysis, assuming similarity, predictions can be made for, jet trajectory, widths, and dilution ratios, in a density-stratified or flowing environment. Such information is of great importance in the design of disposal systems for sewage effluent into the ocean or waste gases into the atmosphere. The present study of a buoyant jet in a stagnant environment has extended the Morton type of analysis to cover the effect of the initial angle of discharge. Numerical solutions have been presented for a range of initial conditions. Laboratory experiments were conducted for photographic observations of the trajectories of dyed jets. In general the observed jet forms agreed well with the calculated trajectories and nominal half widths when the value of the entrainment coefficient was taken to be α = 0.082, as previously suggested by Morton. The problem of a buoyant jet in a uniform cross stream was analyzed by assuming an entrainment mechanism based upon the vector difference between the characteristic jet velocity and the ambient velocity. The effect of the unbalanced pressure field on the sides of the jet flow was approximated by a gross drag term. Laboratory flume experiments with sinking jets which are directly analogous to buoyant jets were performed. Salt solutions were injected into fresh water at the free surface in a flume. The jet trajectories, dilution ratios and jet half widths were determined by conductivity measurements. The entrainment coefficient, α, and drag coefficient, Cd, were found from the observed jet trajectories and dilution ratios. In the ten cases studied where jet Froude number ranged from 10 to 80 and velocity ratio (jet: current) k from 4 to 16, a varied from 0.4 to 0.5 and Cd from 1.7 to 0.1. The jet mixing motion for distances within 250D was found to be dominated by the self-generated turbulence, rather than the free-stream turbulence. Similarity of concentration profiles has also been discussed.

Item Type:Report or Paper (Technical Report)
Group:W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources
Record Number:CaltechKHR:KH-R-15
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Usage Policy:You are granted permission for individual, educational, research and non-commercial reproduction, distribution, display and performance of this work in any format.
ID Code:25955
Deposited By: Imported from CaltechKHR
Deposited On:05 Jun 2006
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 13:50

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