Vanoni, Vito A. and Brooks, Norman H. (1957) Laboratory studies of the roughness and suspended load of alluvial streams. California Institute of Technology , Pasadena, CA. (Unpublished) http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechKHR:SedLabRpt-E-68
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This report describes research work done under Contract No. DA-25-075-eng-3866 with the U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Division, Omaha, during the period 1954-1957, on problems of suspended load transport in alluvial streams. A total of 94 experimental runs were made in two laboratory flumes charged with fine sand of several size distributions. Special attention was given to the variation of the friction factor caused by the changing bed configuration and the damping effect of suspended sediment. The relationship between the sediment transportation rate and the hydraulic variables was also investigated. Most of the runs (General Studies, Chap. V) were made with the bed of the flume completely covered with loose sand but some special runs (Special Studies, Chap. VII) were made with the sand bed chemically solidified in place to prevent sediment transport while preserving the bed configuration previously generated by a natural flow of the same velocity with loose sand. The principal laboratory results are as follows: 1. The friction factor f for a stream with a movable sand bed may vary several fold, being highest at low or medium flow velocities and lowest at high velocity. 2. The principal cause of the variation in f is the appearance of dunes at low or medium velocities and disappearance at high velocities. 3. A secondary cause for the reduction in f for high sediment transport rates is the damping effect of the suspended sediment on the turbulence, and the concomitant reduction in the turbulent diffusion coefficients. The maximum observed reduction due directly to the sediment load was only about 28 percent. 4. The discharge and sediment transportation rate are not unique functions of depth and slope because of the variable roughness. Slope (or shear) must probably be considered a dependent variable for alluvial streams because several equilibrium flows can yield the same slope and shear stress. The laboratory data are compared with similar data for natural streams, and the most promising existing analyses for roughness and sediment load are discussed in the light of the present findings. In addition, a critical review of early and recent literature on the resistance of sediment-laden streams is presented in Chapter II.
|Item Type:||Report or Paper (Technical Report)|
|Additional Information:||Final Report to Corps of Engineers, U. S. Army, Missouri River Division, Contract DA-25-075-eng-3866. The writers are indebted to Dr. George Nomicos for performing all the experiments in the 10.5-inch flume (Chap. V, Tables 7 and 8, and Chap. VII, Table 13). The data dealing with stabilized-bed experiments (Table 13 and Figs. 31-35) have been previously presented and discussed by Nomicos in his doctoral thesis (40). The writers also wish to acknowledge Mr. Hugh S. Bell, Jr., for his assistance in building apparatus, making experiments in the 33.5-inch flume, reducing the data, and preparing figures for this report; Mr. Stephen Emanuel for his general aid in the experimental program, Mr. Elton F. Daly for his part in the construction of the new trusses and other flume apparatus, and Miss Ann Rankin for assistance in preparing this final report for reproduction. In addition, the writers want to thank Dr. Luna B. Leopold of the U. S. Geological Survey for assembling and transmitting the field data presented in Table 10 for the Rio Grande River at Bernalillo, New Mexico.|
|Group:||W. M. Keck Laboratory of Hydraulics and Water Resources|
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|Deposited By:||Imported from CaltechKHR|
|Deposited On:||10 Aug 2006|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 13:51|
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