Elbaz, D. and Armus, L. and Mazzarella, J. and Chary, R.-R. and Murphy, E. and Huynh, M. and Teplitz, H. (2011) GOODS–Herschel: an infrared main sequence for star-forming galaxies. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 533 . Art. No. A119. ISSN 0004-6361 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20111024-095346758
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We present the deepest 100 to 500 μm far-infrared observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the GOODS-Herschel key program, and examine the infrared (IR) 3–500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies at 0 < z < 2.5, supplemented by a local reference sample from IRAS, ISO, Spitzer, and AKARI data. We determine the projected star formation densities of local galaxies from their radio and mid-IR continuum sizes. We find that the ratio of total IR luminosity to rest-frame 8 μm luminosity, IR8 (≡ L_(IR)^(tot)/L_8), follows a Gaussian distribution centered on IR8 = 4 (σ = 1.6) and defines an IR main sequence for star-forming galaxies independent of redshift and luminosity. Outliers from this main sequence produce a tail skewed toward higher values of IR8. This minority population (<20%) is shown to consist of starbursts with compact projected star formation densities. IR8 can be used to separate galaxies with normal and extended modes of star formation from compact starbursts with high–IR8, high projected IR surface brightness (Σ_(IR) > 3 × 10^(10) L_⊙ kpc^(-2)) and a high specific star formation rate (i.e., starbursts). The rest-frame, UV-2700 Å size of these distant starbursts is typically half that of main sequence galaxies, supporting the correlation between star formation density and starburst activity that is measured for the local sample. Locally, luminous and ultraluminous IR galaxies, (U)LIRGs (L_(IR)^(tot)≥ 10^(11) L_☉), are systematically in the starburst mode, whereas most distant (U)LIRGs form stars in the “normal” main sequence mode. This confusion between two modes of star formation is the cause of the so-called “mid-IR excess” population of galaxies found at z > 1.5 by previous studies. Main sequence galaxies have strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission line features, a broad far-IR bump resulting from a combination of dust temperatures (T_(dust) ~ 15–50 K), and an effective T_(dust) ~ 31 K, as derived from the peak wavelength of their infrared SED. Galaxies in the starburst regime instead exhibit weak PAH equivalent widths and a sharper far-IR bump with an effective T_(dust)~ 40 K. Finally, we present evidence that the mid-to-far IR emission of X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN) is predominantly produced by star formation and that candidate dusty AGNs with a power-law emission in the mid-IR systematically occur in compact, dusty starbursts. After correcting for the effect of starbursts on IR8, we identify new candidates for extremely obscured AGNs.
|Additional Information:||© 2011 ESO. Received 11 May 2011. Accepted 3 August 2011. Published online 13 September 2011. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. We wish to thank R.Gobat for generating the three color images of the GOODS fields and our referee Kai Noeske for his constructive comments that helped improving the paper. D. Elbaz and H. S. Hwang thank the Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) for their support. D. Elbaz wishes to thank the French National Agency for Research (ANR) for their support (ANR-09-BLAN-0224). V.C. would like to acknowledge partial support from the EU ToK grant 39965 and FP7-REGPOT 206469. Support for this work was also provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAFIFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain). SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); STFC (UK); and NASA (USA).|
|Subject Keywords:||galaxies: active; infrared: galaxies; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: starburst|
|Official Citation:||GOODS–Herschel: an infrared main sequence for star-forming galaxies D. Elbaz, M. Dickinson, H. S. Hwang, T. Díaz-Santos, G. Magdis, B. Magnelli, D. Le Borgne, F. Galliano, M. Pannella, P. Chanial, L. Armus, V. Charmandaris, E. Daddi, H. Aussel, P. Popesso, J. Kartaltepe, B. Altieri, I. Valtchanov, D. Coia, H. Dannerbauer, K. Dasyra, R. Leiton, J. Mazzarella, D. M. Alexander, V. Buat, D. Burgarella, R.-R. Chary, R. Gilli, R. J. Ivison, S. Juneau, E. Le Floc’h, D. Lutz, G. E. Morrison, J. R. Mullaney, E. Murphy, A. Pope, D. Scott, M. Brodwin, D. Calzetti, C. Cesarsky, S. Charlot, H. Dole, P. Eisenhardt, H. C. Ferguson, N. Förster Schreiber, D. Frayer, M. Giavalisco, M. Huynh, A. M. Koekemoer, C. Papovich, N. Reddy, C. Surace, H. Teplitz, M. S. Yun and G. Wilson A&A 533 A119 (2011) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201117239|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Ruth Sustaita|
|Deposited On:||24 Oct 2011 18:11|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 14:18|
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