Yang, Yunping and Psaltis, Demetri and Luennemann, Marc and Berben, Dirk and Hartwig, Ulrich and Buse, Karsten (2003) Photorefractive properties of lithium niobate crystals doped with manganese. Journal of the Optical Society of America B, 20 (7). pp. 1491-1502. ISSN 0740-3224. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:YANjosab03
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The photorefractive properties of lithium niobate crystals doped with manganese (Mn) have been investigated. It is found that the effect of dark decay due to electron tunneling, which is the limiting factor of the highest practical doping level, is less in LiNbO_3:Mn than in LiNbO_3:Fe , and higher doping levels can be used in LiNbO_3:Mn to achieve larger dynamic range and sensitivity for holographic applications. The highest practical doping level in LiNbO_3:Mn has been found to be ~0.5 wt.% MnCO_3, and refractive-index changes and sensitivities up to 1.5X10^-3 and 1.3 cm/J are measured for extraordinarily polarized light of the wavelength 458 nm. It has been found that, in terms of both dynamic range (or refractive-index change) and sensitivity, the optimal oxidation state is highly oxidized. The distribution coefficient of Mn has been determined to be ~1. Absorption measurements are used to obtain more information about charge-transport parameters. The material is excellently suited for holographic recording with blue light. The hologram quality is outstanding because holographic scattering is much weaker compared with that in, e.g., iron-doped lithium niobate. Thermal fixing has been successfully demonstrated in LiNbO_3:Mn crystals.
|Additional Information:||© 2003 Optical Society of America Received October 12, 2002; revised manuscript received March 3, 2003 Effort sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the Center for Neuromorphic Systems Engineering, Engineering Research Center, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. The authors thank the National Science Foundation and the Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst for sponsoring the US-German collaboration, and R. Niedergesäss, GKSS-R. Research Center, Institute for Coastal Research/Physical and Chemical Analysis for the measurements of neutron activation analysis. We thank Ali Adibi for fruitful discussions.|
|Subject Keywords:||Holographic recording materials; Volume holographic gratings; Lithium niobate; Optical data storage; Optical storage-recording materials|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Archive Administrator|
|Deposited On:||28 Apr 2006|
|Last Modified:||29 Aug 2014 17:10|
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