Smart, M. C. and Ratnakumar, B. V. and Surampudi, S. and Wang, Y. and Zhang, X. and Greenbaum, S. G. and Hightower, A. and Ahn, C. C. and Fultz, B. (1999) Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 146 (11). pp. 3963-3969. ISSN 0013-4651. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20120109-142746392
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Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium-ion rechargeable cells exhibit irreversible capacity, mainly due to reaction of lithium during the formation of passive surface films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are determined by these films. The nature, thickness, and morphology of these films are in turn affected by the electrolyte components, primarily the solvent constituents. In this work, the films formed on graphite anodes in low-temperature electrolytes, i.e., solutions with different mixtures of alkyl carbonates and low-viscosity solvent additives, are examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and solid-state ^(7)Li nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. In addition, other ex situ studies such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy were carried out on the graphite anodes to understand their microstructures.
|Additional Information:||© 1999 The Electrochemical Society. Manuscript submitted February 19, 1999; revised manuscript received June 2, 1999. The work described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and was supported by the Mars Exploration Program, NASA Code S Battery program, and a DARPA-sponsored TRP program. The TEM studies and the Li NMR studies were carried at the California Institute of Technology and Hunter College, respectively, and were supported by grants from the Department of Energy (Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DE-FG03-94ER14493) and the Office of Naval Research. One of the authors (S.G.G.) acknowledges the National Research Council for Fellowship support during his sabbatical leave at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, assisted in meeting the publication costs of this article.|
|Classification Code:||PACS: 82.45.Fk; 61.10.Nz; 68.37.Lp|
|Official Citation:||Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low-Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries M. C. Smart, B. V. Ratnakumar, S. Surampudi, Y. Wang, X. Zhang, S. G. Greenbaum, A. Hightower, C. C. Ahn, and B. Fultz, J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3963 (1999), DOI:10.1149/1.1392577|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Jason Perez|
|Deposited On:||10 Jan 2012 15:37|
|Last Modified:||10 Jan 2012 15:37|
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