Yang-Snyder, Julia A. and Rothenberg, Ellen V. (1998) Spontaneous Expression of Interleukin-2 In Vivo in Specific Tissues of Young Mice. Developmental Immunology, 5 (4). pp. 223-245. ISSN 1044-6672. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20120117-131739949
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In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the spectrum of tissues in which interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA and protein are found in healthy, normal young mice. In neonatal animals, IL-2 is expressed specifically by distinct, isolated cells at three major sites: the thymus, skin, and gut. Based on morphology and distribution, the IL-2-expressing cells resemble CD3ε + T cells that are also present in all these locations. Within the thymus of postweanling animals, both TcRαβ and TcRγδ lineage cells secrete "haloes" of the cytokine that diffuse over many cell diameters. Within the skin, isolated cells expressing IL-2 are seen at birth in the mesenchyme, and large numbers of IL-2-expressing cells are localized around hair follicles in the epidermis in 3-week-old animals. At this age, a substantial subset of CD3ε + cells is similarly localized in the skin. Significantly, by 5 weeks of age and later when the CD3ε + cells are evenly distributed throughout the epidermis, IL-2 RNA and protein expression are no longer detectable. Finally, within the intestine, IL-2 protein is first detected in association with a few discrete, isolated cells at day 16 of gestation and the number of IL-2 reactive cells increases in frequency through El9 and remains abundant in adult life. In postnatal animals, the frequency of IL- 2-positive cells in villi exceeds by greater than fivefold that found in mesenteric lymph node or Peyer's patches. Overall, these temporal and spatial patterns of expression provide insight into the regulation of IL-2 in vivo and suggest a role for IL-2 expression distinct from immunological responses to antigen.
|Additional Information:||© 1998 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association). N.V. Published by license under the Harwood Academic Publishers imprint, part of the Gordon and Breach Publishing Group This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Received 30 May 1997; in final form 20 June 1997. We are very grateful to Drs. Yoichi Shinkai, Fred Alt, Dawne Page, Stephen Hedrick, William Sha, Dennis Loh, Antonio Bandeiras, and Susumu Tonegawa for certain animals used in the course of these studies and for their generous aid in providing some of the tissues. We also wish to thank Drs. Mitchell Kronenberg, Wendy Havran, and Robert Tigelaar for helpful conversations. This work was substantially made possible by the expert and tireless help of Steven Ing- Wa Shen and Robin Monson Condie, who maintained and carefully screened the immunodeficient and transgenic mouse breeding colonies. We also thank Shirley Pease for her assistance in rederiving the transgenic mice; Drs. Eric Davidson, William Dreyer, and Barbara Wold, for access to critical equipment; Joe Umbro and Richard Gomez, for painstaking reproduction of the photographs; Dr. Susan Ward, for key strategic help with some experiments; and Rochelle Diamond, for valuable advice and support. This work was supported by grants from the USPHS to E.V.R., AI34041, AI19752, and AG13108.|
|Subject Keywords:||Dendritic epidermal T cells, gut-associated lymphocytes, TCR-γδ thymocytes, TCR-αβ thymocytes, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, developmental regulation, interleukin-2|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Tony Diaz|
|Deposited On:||13 Apr 2012 21:16|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 14:42|
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