Dauksher, W. J. and Resnick, D. J. and Cummings, K. D. and Baker, J. and Gregory, R. B. and Theodore, N. D. and Chan, J. A. and Johnson, W. A. and Mogab, C. J. and Nicolet, M-A. and Reid, J. S. (1995) Method for fabricating a low stress x-ray mask using annealable amorphous refractory compounds. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 13 (6). pp. 3103-3108. ISSN 1071-1023. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20120216-095821404
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X‐ray masks have been fabricated by depositing a compressively stressed refractory material on a wafer, annealing to a zero stress state, and then forming the membrane. Amorphous TaSiN and TaSi alloys deposited with a magnetron sputter tool have been extensively characterized in terms of resistivity, composition, defectivity, surface roughness, and crystalline state. Optimization in terms of these parameters has resulted in base line selection of absorber films of the following compositions: Ta_(61)Si_(17)N_(21) and Ta_(75)Si_(23). The process is shown to be extendable to an entire class of amorphous annealable refractory materials. Careful studies of deposition and annealing conditions have resulted in a 4× reduction of image placement to the 30 nm maximum vector level. Finally, the importance of stress gradients is experimentally verified.
|Additional Information:||© 1995 American Vacuum Society. Received 2 June 1995; accepted 2 August 1995. The authors would like to recognize the efforts of Sherri Knight, Liz Velasquez, Cindy England, Mary Gonzalez, and Eddie Hernandez for assistance in fabrication of the x-ray masks. In addition, Diana Convey was always ready to provide timely AFM data. All RBS analytical work was performed at the Physics Department of the University of Arizona in Tucson under the auspices of John Leavitt, Lawrence McIntyre, and Donald Ashbaugh. Thanks are also due to Mark McCord of IBM for additional 100 keV e-beam patterning and Chris Constantine of Plasma Therm for assistance in development of the refractory etch process. Finally, this work could not have been completed without the gracious help of Eric Fanucchi, Brian McCrossan, and Gina Corral of the Mesa Mask Shop with their Nikon XY 3i tool.|
|Subject Keywords:||Nanostructures, surface structure, amorphous state, annealing, chemical composition, crystal structure, electric conductivity, masking, nitrogen compounds, refractory metal compounds, silicon alloys, stresses, tantalum base alloys, thin films, X radiation|
|Classification Code:||PACS: 81.15.Cd; 81.07.-b; 81.16.-c; 85.35.-p|
|Official Citation:||Method for fabricating a low stress x‐ray mask using annealable amorphous refractory compounds W. J. Dauksher, D. J. Resnick, K. D. Cummings, J. Baker, R. B. Gregory, N. D. Theodore, J. A. Chan, W. A. Johnson, C. J. Mogab, M.‐A. Nicolet, and J. S. Reid J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13, 3103 (1995); http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.588331|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Ruth Sustaita|
|Deposited On:||16 Feb 2012 18:19|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 14:51|
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