Smith, Nathan and Cenko, S. Bradley and Butler, Nat and Bloom, Joshua S. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Horesh, Assaf and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Law, Nicholas M. and Nugent, Peter E. and Ofek, Eran O. and Poznanski, Dovi and Quimby, Robert M. and Sesar, Branimir and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Arcavi, Iair and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Polishook, David and Xu, Dong and Yaron, Ofer and Frail, Dale A. and Sullivan, Mark (2012) SN 2010jp (PTF10aaxi): a jet in a Type II supernova. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 420 (2). pp. 1135-1144. ISSN 0035-8711 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20120224-154245659
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We present photometry and spectroscopy of the peculiar Type II supernova (SN) SN 2010jp, also named PTF10aaxi. The light curve exhibits a linear decline with a relatively low peak absolute magnitude of only −15.9 (unfiltered), and a low radioactive decay luminosity at late times, which suggests a low synthesized nickel mass of M (^(56) Ni) ≲ 0.003 M_⊙. Spectra of SN 2010jp display an unprecedented triple-peaked Hα line profile, showing (1) a narrow (full width at half-maximum ≳800 km s−1) central component that suggests shock interaction with dense circumstellar material (CSM); (2) high-velocity blue and red emission features centred at −12 600 and +15 400 km s^(−1), respectively; and (3) very broad wings extending from −22 000 to +25 000 km s−1. These features persist over multiple epochs during the ∼100 d after explosion. We propose that this line profile indicates a bipolar jet-driven explosion, with the central component produced by normal SN ejecta and CSM interaction at mid and low latitudes, while the high-velocity bumps and broad-line wings arise in a non-relativistic bipolar jet. Two variations of the jet interpretation seem plausible: (1) a fast jet mixes ^(56)Ni to high velocities in polar zones of the H-rich envelope; or (2) the reverse shock in the jet produces blue and red bumps in Balmer lines when a jet interacts with dense CSM. Jet-driven Type II SNe are predicted for collapsars resulting from a wide range of initial masses above 25 M_⊙, especially at subsolar metallicity. This seems consistent with the SN host environment, which is either an extremely low-luminosity dwarf galaxy or the very remote parts of an interacting pair of star-forming galaxies. It also seems consistent with the apparently low ^(56)Ni mass that may accompany black hole formation. We speculate that the jet survives to produce observable signatures because the star’s H envelope was very low mass, having been mostly stripped away by the previous eruptive mass-loss indicated by the Type IIn features in the spectrum.
|Additional Information:||© 2012 The Authors. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS. Accepted 2011 October 28. Received 2011 October 27; in original form 2011 August 8. Article first published online: 13 Jan 2012. We thank P. Challis and R. Kirshner for assistance with the MMT observations in 2010 November, and for providing the reduced spectrum from that night. SBC acknowledges generous financial assistance from Gary and Cynthia Bengier, the Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fund, NASA/Swift grants NNX10AI21G and GO-7100028, the TABASGO Foundation, and NSF grant AST-0908886. DP and EOO are supported by Einstein fellowships from NASA. The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, which is supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, provided staff, computational resources and data storage for this project. The Weizmann–PTF partnership is supported in part by grants from the Israeli Science Foundation to AG. Collaborative Caltech–WIS work is supported by a grant from the Binational Science Foundation to AG and SRK. The work of AG is further supported by an FP7 Marie Curie IRG Fellowship and the Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, and by the Lord Sieff of Brimpton Memorial Fund. JSB was partially supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF-CDI # 0941742). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.|
|Subject Keywords:||circumstellar matter; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual: SN 2010jp; ISM: jets and outflows|
|Official Citation:||Smith, N., Cenko, S. B., Butler, N., Bloom, J. S., Kasliwal, M. M., Horesh, A., Kulkarni, S. R., Law, N. M., Nugent, P. E., Ofek, E. O., Poznanski, D., Quimby, R. M., Sesar, B., Ben-Ami, S., Arcavi, I., Gal-Yam, A., Polishook, D., Xu, D., Yaron, O., Frail, D. A. and Sullivan, M. (2012), SN 2010jp (PTF10aaxi): a jet in a Type II supernova. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 420: 1135–1144. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.20104.x|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Ruth Sustaita|
|Deposited On:||27 Feb 2012 17:24|
|Last Modified:||27 Feb 2012 17:24|
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