Scheller, Richard H. and McAllister, Linda B. and Crain, William R., Jr. and Durica, David S. and Posakony, James W. and Thomas, Terry L. and Britten, Roy J. and Davidson, Eric H. (1981) Organization and expression of multiple actin genes in the sea urchin. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 1 (7). pp. 609-628. ISSN 0270-7306 http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SCHEmcb81
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A set of at least 11 actin genes has been isolated from genomic recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid libraries of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Most of the isolates derive from a library which represents the genome of a single animal. There are at least five distinct types of sea urchin actin gene, some of which are represented by multiple copies in the genome. The actin gene types are distinguished by nonhomologous flanking sequences and intervening sequences, though the protein coding sequences appear in most cases to be quite similar. Eight of the 11 genes isolated have been recovered in lambda recombinants that contain two actin genes, linked at 5- to 9-kilobase distances. Restriction map overlaps suggest that the genome contains an array of at least three of these genes spaced over about 30 kilobases of deoxyribonucleic acid. In the linkage patterns observed, actin genes of diverse types were linked to each other. In early embryos, actin messenger ribonucleic acid (RNA) transcripts of 1.8 and 2.2 kilobases were found, and the longer of these transcripts was more prevalent in the maternal RNA of the egg. From RNA gel blot experiments, we conclude that the two transcripts derive from different actin gene types. Different repetitive sequences were located to either side of most of the actin genes, and in most observed cases the repeat sequences which were adjacent to actin genes of a given type were similar. The repeat sequences flanking the actin genes belonged to families which were transcribed, but those repeats in the neighborhood of the actin genes which have been investigated were not themselves represented in the stable RNAs of eggs or early embryos.
|Additional Information:||Copyright © 1981 by the American Society for Microbiology. Received 3 March 1981/Accepted 29 April 1981 We are grateful to many of our associates and colleagues for assistance, criticism, and insight at many stages in this work. Laurence Lasky carried out some of the initial screening and blot hybridization experiments which drew attention to SpG2 as a clone of interest. David Anderson isolated and mapped several of the actin A isolates and produced preliminary evidence that mRNA's coding for actin protein are selected from embryo poly(A) RNA by SpG2. M. Chamberlin assisted in the completion of some key experiments, and Barbara Hough-Evans provided a most useful critical review of a draft of the manuscript. Special thanks are also due to Norman Davidson and Richard A. Firtel for interesting and perspicacious reviews as well. This research was supported by Public Health Service grants GM-20927 (to E.H.D. and R.J.B.) and GM-24620, GM-25492, CA-12708, and RR-05528 (to W.R.C.) from the National Institutes of Health. R.H.S. was supported by Public Health Service postdoctoral training grant GM-07401, and J.W.P. was supported by Public Health Service predoctoral training grant GM-07616, both from the National Institutes of Health. L.B.M. received support from a California Institute of Technology Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship. R.J.B. is also a staff member, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. D.S.D. was supported by a fellowship from the Muscular Dystrophy Foundation.|
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