Buzsáki, György and Anastassiou, Costas A. and Koch, Christof (2012) The origin of extracellular fields and currents — EEG, ECoG, LFP and spikes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 13 (6). pp. 407-420. ISSN 1471-003X http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20120608-092642189
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Neuronal activity in the brain gives rise to transmembrane currents that can be measured in the extracellular medium. Although the major contributor of the extracellular signal is the synaptic transmembrane current, other sources — including Na+ and Ca2+ spikes, ionic fluxes through voltage- and ligand-gated channels, and intrinsic membrane oscillations — can substantially shape the extracellular field. High-density recordings of field activity in animals and subdural grid recordings in humans, combined with recently developed data processing tools and computational modelling, can provide insight into the cooperative behaviour of neurons, their average synaptic input and their spiking output, and can increase our understanding of how these processes contribute to the extracellular signal.
|Additional Information:||© 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Published online 18 May 2012. The authors are supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants NS34994, MH54671 and NS074015), the Swiss National Science Foundation (grant PA00P3_131470), the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation, the US–Israel Binational Foundation, the Global Institute for Scientific Thinking and the Human Frontiers Science Program (grant RGP0032/2011). Parts of this Review were written while G.B. was a visiting scholar at the Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (2007) and at the Zukunftskolleg Program, University of Konstanz, Germany (2011). We thank G. Einevoll, E. Schomburg and J. Taxidis for their comments on the manuscript.|
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|Deposited By:||Jason Perez|
|Deposited On:||08 Jun 2012 20:49|
|Last Modified:||08 Jun 2012 20:49|
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