Sanderson, S. R. and Hornung, H. G. and Sturtevant, B. (2004) The influence of non-equilibrium dissociation on the flow produced by shock impingement on a blunt body. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 516 . pp. 1-37. ISSN 0022-1120. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SANjfm04
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We describe an investigation of the effects of non-equilibrium thermochemistry on the interaction between a weak oblique shock and the strong bow shock formed by a blunt body in hypersonic flow. This type of shock-on-shock interaction, also known as an Edney type IV interaction, causes locally intense enhancement of the surface heat transfer rate. A supersonic jet is formed by the nonlinear interaction that occurs between the two shock waves and elevated heat transfer rates and surface pressures are produced by the impingement of the supersonic jet on the body. The current paper is motivated by previous studies suggesting that real gas effects would significantly increase the severity of the phenomenon. Experiments are described in which a free-piston shock tunnel is used to produce shock interaction flows with significant gas dissociation. Surprisingly, the data that are obtained show no significant stagnation enthalpy dependence of the ratio of the peak heat transfer rates with and without shock interaction, in contrast to existing belief. The geometry investigated is the nominally two-dimensional flow about a cylinder with coplanar impinging shock wave. Holographic interferometry is used to visualize the flow field and to quantify increases in the stagnation density caused by shock interaction. Time-resolved heat transfer measurements are obtained from surface junction thermocouples about the model forebody. An improved model is developed to elucidate the finite-rate thermochemical processes occurring in the interaction region. It is shown that severe heat transfer intensification is a result of a jet shock structure that minimizes the entropy rise of the supersonic jet fluid whereas strong thermochemical effects are promoted by conditions that maximize the entropy rise (and hence temperature). This dichotomy underlies the smaller than anticipated influence of real gas effects on the heat transfer intensification. The model accurately predicts the measured heat transfer rates. Improved understanding of the influence of real gas effects on the shock interaction phenomenon reduces a significant element of risk in the design of hypersonic vehicles. The peak heat transfer rate for the Edney type IV interaction is shown to be well-correlated, in the weak impinging shock regime, by an expression of the form [equation] for use in practical design calculations.
|Additional Information:||"Reprinted with the permission of Cambridge University Press." (Received 20 November 2003 and in revised form 11 May 2004). Regrettably, Professor Brad Sturtevant passed away on 20 October 2000 during the preparation of this archival publication. It is clear that this work has benefited immeasurably from our co-author’s insight, guidance and characteristic thoroughness. The first author is grateful for assistance received from the Darryl G. Greenamyer Fellowship and C. L. Powell Fellowship funds. This work was supported by AFOSR Grant Nos. F49620-92-J-0110 and F49620-93-1-0338.|
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|Deposited On:||02 Jun 2005|
|Last Modified:||19 Sep 2016 17:53|
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