Hopkins, Philip F. and Kereš, Dušan and Oñorbe, José and Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André and Quataert, Eliot and Murray, Norman and Bullock, James S. (2014) Galaxies on FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments): Stellar Feedback Explains Cosmologically Inefficient Star Formation. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 445 (1). pp. 581-603. ISSN 0035-8711. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20131125-073705692
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We present a series of high-resolution cosmological simulations of galaxy formation to z = 0, spanning halo masses ∼10^8–10^(13) M⊙, and stellar masses ∼10^4–10^(11) M⊙. Our simulations include fully explicit treatment of the multiphase interstellar medium and stellar feedback. The stellar feedback inputs (energy, momentum, mass, and metal fluxes) are taken directly from stellar population models. These sources of feedback, with zero adjusted parameters, reproduce the observed relation between stellar and halo mass up to M_(halo) ∼ 10^(12) M⊙. We predict weak redshift evolution in the M*–M_(halo) relation, consistent with current constraints to z > 6. We find that the M*–M_(halo) relation is insensitive to numerical details, but is sensitive to feedback physics. Simulations with only supernova feedback fail to reproduce observed stellar masses, particularly in dwarf and high-redshift galaxies: radiative feedback (photoheating and radiation pressure) is necessary to destroy giant molecular clouds and enable efficient coupling of later supernovae to the gas. Star formation rates (SFRs) agree well with the observed Kennicutt relation at all redshifts. The galaxy-averaged Kennicutt relation is very different from the numerically imposed law for converting gas into stars, and is determined by self-regulation via stellar feedback. Feedback reduces SFRs and produces reservoirs of gas that lead to rising late-time star formation histories, significantly different from halo accretion histories. Feedback also produces large short-time-scale variability in galactic SFRs, especially in dwarfs. These properties are not captured by common ‘sub-grid’ wind models.
|Additional Information:||© 2014 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2014 August 22. Received 2014 August 21; in original form 2013 November 10. First published online September 29, 2014. We thank the many friends and peers who discussed this work in progress and sent helpful suggestions after the first draft was posted to the arXiv. The simulations here used computational resources granted by the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number OCI-1053575; specifically allocations TG-AST120025 (PIKeres), TG-AST130039 (PIHopkins), and TGTG- AST090039 (PI Quataert). Collaboration between institutions for this work was partially supported by a workshop grant from UC-HiPACC. Partial support for PFH was provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship Award Number PF1-120083 issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of the NASA under contract NAS8-03060, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant #776 to the Caltech Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics. JO also thanks the financial support of the Fulbright/MICINN Program and NASA Grant NNX09AG01G. DK acknowledges support from the Hellman Fellowship fund at the UC San Diego and NASA ATP grant NNX11AI97G. CAFG is supported by a fellowship from the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science and by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship Award number PF3-140106 and grant number 10-ATP10-0187. EQ is supported in part by NASA ATP Grant 12-ATP12-0183, a Simons Investigator award from the Simons Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the Thomas Alison Schneider Chair in Physics.|
|Subject Keywords:||galaxies: formation — galaxies: evolution — galaxies: active — stars: formation — cosmology: theory|
|Official Citation:||Philip F. Hopkins, Dušan Kereš, José Oñorbe, Claude-André Faucher-Giguère, Eliot Quataert, Norman Murray, and James S. Bullock Galaxies on FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments): stellar feedback explains cosmologically inefficient star formation MNRAS (November 21, 2014) Vol. 445 581-603 doi:10.1093/mnras/stu1738 First published online September 29, 2014|
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|Deposited By:||Tony Diaz|
|Deposited On:||02 Dec 2013 21:54|
|Last Modified:||02 Dec 2014 21:17|
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