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Characteristic Temperatures in Super-Novae

Zwicky, F. (1936) Characteristic Temperatures in Super-Novae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 22 (9). pp. 557-561. ISSN 0027-8424. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:ZWIpnas36c

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Abstract

Some time ago Baade and I called attention to the existence of certain temporary and extremely luminous objects in extragalactic nebulae. [1] We suggested: 1. These temporary objects are individual stars which behave like giant analogues of common novae and which, therefore, may appropriately be called super-novae. 2. The visual brightness of super-novae, on the average, is comparable to the brightness of the nebulae themselves. 3. The average frequency of occurrence of super-novae is one per extragalactic nebula per several centuries. Recently the above suggestions have been verified to a great extent. A thorough investigation of past photographic records of temporary objects in nebulae by Baade, as well as the discovery in January, 1936, of a super-nova in N. G. C. 4273 have contributed much new evidence toward the verification of our super-nova hypothesis. It has also proved possible to establish between certain physical characteristics of temporary stars a number of relations which enable us to satisfactorily bridge the gap between common novae and super-novae. [2]


Item Type:Article
Additional Information:Copyright © 1936 by the National Academy of Sciences Communicated August 15, 1936
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:ZWIpnas36c
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:ZWIpnas36c
Alternative URL:http://www.pnas.org/content/vol22/issue9/
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:4488
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Archive Administrator
Deposited On:24 Aug 2006
Last Modified:14 Nov 2014 19:19

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