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Compton modified line structure and its relation to the electron theory of solid bodies

Du Mond, Jesse W. M. (1929) Compton modified line structure and its relation to the electron theory of solid bodies. Physical Review, 33 (5). pp. 643-658. ISSN 0031-899X. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:DUMpr29a

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Abstract

A tube especially designed for the study of the Compton effect at large angles of scattering.—The structure of the Compton line obtained with this tube for a scattering angle of nearly 180° with a metallic beryllium scatterer is shown. Interpretation of the structure of the Compton line.—The diffuse structure of the Compton line is here attributed to a broadening caused by the velocity distribution of the scattering electrons in the solid scatterer analagous to a Doppler broadening and a relation between line structure and velocity distribution is derived. The observed line structure from the beryllium scatterer is compared with theoretical structures computed on several alternative assumptions as to electron velocity distribution. It is assumed: —1. That electrons in the solid scattering substance have the velocity distribution required by a wave-mechanical atom model for a free atom of that substance far removed from neighbors. 2. That electrons may be divided into two classes, one class the metallic or conductive electrons in the state of a degenerate electron gas subject to the Pauli Exclusion Principle and having the velocity distribution derived by Sommerfeld, and the other class as in the 1st assumption unperturbed by the neighboring atoms. 3. That electrons may be divided into two classes as before but that those forming an electron gas have the classical velocity distribution required by the Maxwell-Boltzmann equipartition law. 4. That electrons have the velocity distribution required by the older Bohr-Sommerfeld atom model with point electrons executing Kepler orbits and as in the first assumption unperturbed by neighboring atoms. The distribution of electron velocities in metals.—The results strongly contradict the classical distribution of electron velocities in solid bodies predicted by the rigid interpretation of the Maxwell-Boltzmann equipartition principle. They are also in contradiction with the older Bohr-Sommerfeld atom model. The results are in accord with the wave-mechanical atom model and constitute favorable evidence for the Sommerfeld distribution of metallic electron velocities and for the degenerate gas state.


Item Type:Article
Additional Information:©1929 The American Physical Society. Received 10 February 1929. My sincere thanks are due to Professor W. V. Houston for his kindness in acquainting me with the results of the electron theory of metals in the Fermi statistics, and to Professor L. C. Pauling and Mr. Edwin McMillan for the help they gave me in the development and computation of the functions Φ(β) for wave mechanical atom odels. I am much indebted to Professor George Wentzel for his discussions and criticism in conversations in Paris and in subsequent letters. I am most grateful, also, to Professor R. A. Millikan for his faith and encouragement in this study which for a long time gave but meager promise of interesting results.
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:DUMpr29a
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:DUMpr29a
Alternative URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRev.33.643
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:4896
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 Sep 2006
Last Modified:26 Dec 2012 09:02

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