Molecular Evolution Activities

This is a comprehensive bibliography (under construction) of primary and secondary sources on the neutral theory of molecular evolution. It currently covers the period 1973-2001.

Author :

Yang, Z. H.

Year :


Title :

Likelihood ratio tests for detecting positive selection and application to primate lysozyme evolution

Journal :

Molecular Biology and Evolution

Volume :


Issue :


Pages :


Date :


Short Title :

Likelihood ratio tests for detecting positive selection and application to primate lysozyme evolutio

Alternate Journal :

Mol. Biol. Evol.

Custom 2 :


Abstract :

An excess of nonsynonymous substitutions over synonymous ones is an important indicator of positive selection at the molecular level. A lineage that underwent Darwinian selection may have a nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (d(N)/d(S)) that is different from those of other lineages or greater than one. in this paper, several codon-based likelihood models that allow for variable d(N)/d(S) ratios among lineages were developed. They were then used to construct likelihood ratio tests to examine whether the d(N)/d(S) ratio is variable among evolutionary lineages, whether the ratio for a few lineages of interest is different from the background ratio for other lineages in the phylogeny, and whether the d(N)/d(S) ratio for the lineages of interest is greater than one. The tests were applied to the lysozyme genes of 24 primate species. The d(N)/d(S) ratios were found to differ significantly among lineages, indicating that the evolution of primate lysozymes is episodic, which is incompatible with the neutral theory. Maximum-likelihood estimates of parameters suggested that about nine nonsynonymous and zero synonymous nucleotide substitutions occurred in the lineage leading to hominoids, and the d(N)/d(S) ratio for that lineage is significantly greater than one. The corresponding estimates for the lineage ancestral to colobine monkeys were nine and one, and the d(N)/d(S) ratio for the lineage is not significantly greater than one, although it is significantly higher than the background ratio. The likelihood analysis thus confirmed most, but not all, conclusions Messier and Stewart reached using reconstructed ancestral sequences to estimate synonymous and nonsynonymous rates for different lineages.

Notes :

Times Cited: 31 ZK624 MOL BIOL EVOL
 -- contributed by John Beatty, March 29, 2002