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The sensitivity of surface mass loading displacement response to perturbations in the elastic structure of the crust and mantle

Martens, Hilary R. and Rivera, Luis and Simons, Mark and Ito, Takeo (2016) The sensitivity of surface mass loading displacement response to perturbations in the elastic structure of the crust and mantle. Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth, 121 (5). pp. 3911-3938. ISSN 2169-9313. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160909-090208580

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Abstract

Surface mass loads generate a rich spectrum of deformation responses in the solid Earth that might be exploited to probe the material properties of the crust and mantle. Here we present a detailed examination of load-induced surface displacements and their sensitivities to systematic perturbations in elastic Earth structure. We compute Love numbers and displacement load Green's functions (LGFs) by integrating the equations of motion for spheroidal deformation of a radially heterogeneous and self-gravitating Earth. Sensitivity kernels are derived for individual Love numbers numerically using finite differences and quasi-analytically using calculus of variations. We then generate sensitivity kernels for displacement LGFs by systematically perturbing the preliminary reference Earth model. We find that displacement LGFs are most sensitive to elastic structural perturbations within 500 km depth from the surface and for short source-receiver distances. For separate perturbations to the shear modulus, bulk modulus, and density within the crust and mantle, the sensitivity kernels exhibit unique patterns, consistent with the possibility to constrain the parameters independently given a spatially distributed set of sufficiently accurate loading response observations. The sensitivity to density structure, however, is generally weak in comparison to elastic structure. We also examine the sensitivity of surface displacements caused by M_2 ocean tidal loading (OTL) to systematic perturbations in the elastic moduli and density. Since OTL-induced surface displacements are load and site dependent, we focus on high-resolution profiles across Iceland as a case study. The sensitivity kernels constitute a key element in the formulation of the inverse problem with application to geodetic tomography.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JB012456DOIArticle
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JB012456/abstractPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Simons, Mark0000-0003-1412-6395
Additional Information:© 2016 American Geophysical Union. Received 17 AUG 2015; Accepted 22 APR 2016; Accepted article online 28 APR 2016; published online 19 MAY 2016. We thank Duncan Agnew and Richard Ray for their fruitful discussions on ocean tidal loading as well as thoughtful suggestions regarding the development of our loading response convolution code. We also thank Shuhei Okubo for valuable guidance in understanding the development of the Love number variational equations. We gratefully acknowledge the associate editor and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful and comprehensive comments, which substantially strengthened the manuscript. We also acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation Geophysics Program funding under grant EAR-1417245. This manuscript is based upon work supported by the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship to HRM under grant NNX14AO04H. Some figures were generated using Generic Mapping Tools [Wessel et al., 2013]. The load Love numbers and displacement load Green's functions computed for this study are provided in the supporting information (Data Sets S7–S24). The reference Earth models used to derive the Love numbers and Green's functions are also provided in the supporting information (Data Sets S1–S6).
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFEAR-1417245
NASANNX14AO04H
Subject Keywords:surface mass loading; Love numbers; Earth structure; ocean tidal loading; load Green's functions; Earth deformation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20160909-090208580
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160909-090208580
Official Citation:Martens, H. R., L. Rivera, M. Simons, and T. Ito (2016), The sensitivity of surface mass loading displacement response to perturbations in the elastic structure of the crust and mantle, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 121, 3911–3938, doi:10.1002/2015JB012456.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:70226
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Sep 2016 18:10
Last Modified:03 Nov 2016 20:09

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