Lam, Wayne W. and Jou, Christina F. and Chen, Howard Z. and Stoltz, Kjell S. and Luhmann, Neville C., Jr. and Rutledge, David B. (1988) Millimeter-wave diode-grid phase shifters. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 36 (5). pp. 902-907. ISSN 0018-9480. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:LAMieeetmtt88
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Monolithic diode grids have been fabricated on 2-cm square gallium-arsenide wafers with 1600 Schottky-barrier varactor diodes. Shorted diodes are detected with a liquid-crystal technique, and the bad diodes are removed with an ultrasonic probe. A small-aperture reflectometer that uses wavefront division interference was developed to measure the reflection coefficient of the grids. A Phase shift of 70° with a 7-dB loss was obtained at 93 GHz when the bias on the diode grid was changed from -3 V to 1 V. A simple transmission-line grid model, together with the measured low-frequency parameters for the diodes, was shown to predict the measured performance over the entire capacitive bias range of the diodes, as well as over the complete reactive tuning range provided by a reflector behind the grid, and over a wide range of frequencies form 33 GHz to 141 GHz. This shows that the transmission-line model and the measured low-frequency diode parameters can be used to design an electronic beam-steering array and to predict its performance. An electronic beam-steering array made of a pair of grids using state-of-the-art diodes with 5-Ω series resistances would have a loss of 1.4 dB at 90 GHz.
|Additional Information:||© Copyright 2006 IEEE. Manuscript received July 16, 1987; revised December 11, 1987. This work was supported by the Army Research Office, by the U.S. Army Harry Diamond Laboratory, by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and by TRW under the University of California MICRO program. One of the authors (W. Lam) acknowledges the support of an AMOCO Foundation Fellowship and would like to thank Dr. Chung-en Zah at Bell Communication Research for showing him how to fabricate diodes. The authors are indebted to Prof. A. Yariv and Prof. M-A. Nicolet at Caltech for the use of their fabrication facilities, and to Prof. W. Bridges at Caltech for the loan of millimeter-wave equipment. They would also like to thank Dr. T. Kuech at IBM for providing MOCVD wafers, Dr. T. Fong and Dr. John Berenz at TRW and Dr. J. Maserjian and L. Eng at JPL for providing MBE wafers, Dr. H. Yamasaki, Dr. H. Kanber, and B. Rush at Hughes, and Dr. F. So and A. Ghaffari at Caltech for providing proton implantation.|
|Subject Keywords:||III-V semiconductors, microwave integrated circuits, monolithic integrated circuits, phase shifters, varactors|
|Usage Policy:||No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.|
|Deposited By:||Archive Administrator|
|Deposited On:||22 Oct 2007|
|Last Modified:||26 Dec 2012 09:44|
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