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Adult tissue-derived neural crest‐like stem cells: Sources, regulatory networks, and translational potential: Concise review

Mehrotra, Pihu and Tseropoulos, Georgios and Bronner, Marianne E. and Andreadis, Stelios T. (2020) Adult tissue-derived neural crest‐like stem cells: Sources, regulatory networks, and translational potential: Concise review. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 9 (3). pp. 328-341. ISSN 2157-6564. doi:10.1002/sctm.19-0173.

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Neural crest (NC) cells are a multipotent stem cell population that gives rise to a diverse array of cell types in the body, including peripheral neurons, Schwann cells (SC), craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle cells, and melanocytes. NC formation and differentiation into specific lineages takes place in response to a set of highly regulated signaling and transcriptional events within the neural plate border. Pre‐migratory NC cells initially are contained within the dorsal neural tube from which they subsequently emigrate, migrating to often distant sites in the periphery. Following their migration and differentiation, some NC‐like cells persist in adult tissues in a nascent multipotent state, making them potential candidates for autologous cell therapy. This review discusses the gene regulatory network responsible for NC development and maintenance of multipotency. We summarize the genes and signaling pathways that have been implicated in the differentiation of a post‐migratory NC into mature myelinating SC. We elaborate on the signals and transcription factors involved in the acquisition of immature SC fate, axonal sorting of unmyelinated neuronal axons, and finally the path toward mature myelinating SC, which envelope axons within myelin sheaths, facilitating electrical signal propagation. The gene regulatory events guiding development of SC in‐vivo provides insights into means for differentiating NC‐like cells from adult human tissues into functional SC, which have the potential to provide autologous cell sources for the treatment of demyelinating and neurodegenerative disorders.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Mehrotra, Pihu0000-0001-9369-5013
Bronner, Marianne E.0000-0003-4274-1862
Additional Information:© 2019 The Authors. Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Version of Record online: 18 November 2019; Manuscript accepted: 25 October 2019; Manuscript revised: 22 October 2019; Manuscript received: 17 June 2019. This work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health R01 EB023114 (S.T.A.) and the New York Stem Cell Science NYSTEM (Contract #C30290GG, S.T.A.). The authors declare no potential conflict of interest. Author Contributions: Pihu Mehrotra‐ wrote the manuscript, specifically parts on introduction to the topic, sources of neural crest and their genetic regulation, their application for treatment of demyelinating disorders and made the manuscript figures. Georgios Tseropoulos‐ wrote the manuscript, specifically mechanisms underlying differentiation of neural crest cells to Schwann cells and made the manuscript figures. Marianne E. Bronner‐ wrote the manuscript, specifically content on how Schwann cell precursors contribute to neural crest derivatives, and gene regulatory networks controlling lineage diversification. Stelios T. Andreadis‐ conceived overall review content, writing and editing the manuscript and project supervision. Data Availability Statement: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHR01 EB023114
New York Stem Cell Science (NYSTEM)C30290GG
Subject Keywords:demyelinating disorders; gene regulatory network; neural crest; Schwann cells
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191125-135819310
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Official Citation:Mehrotra, P, Tseropoulos, G, Bronner, ME, Andreadis, ST. Adult tissue–derived neural crest‐like stem cells: Sources, regulatory networks, and translational potential. STEM CELLS Transl Med. 2020; 9: 328–341.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:100038
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:25 Nov 2019 23:31
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:51

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