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H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033−4723

Sluse, D. and Goldstein, D. A. (2019) H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033−4723. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 490 (1). pp. 613-633. ISSN 0035-8711. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20191206-081019666

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Abstract

Galaxies and galaxy groups located along the line of sight towards gravitationally lensed quasars produce high-order perturbations of the gravitational potential at the lens position. When these perturbation are too large, they can induce a systematic error on H0 of a few per cent if the lens system is used for cosmological inference and the perturbers are not explicitly accounted for in the lens model. In this work, we present a detailed characterization of the environment of the lens system WFI 2033−4723 (⁠z_(src) = 1.662, z_(lens) = 0.6575), one of the core targets of the H0LiCOW project for which we present cosmological inferences in a companion paper. We use the Gemini and ESO-Very Large telescopes to measure the spectroscopic redshifts of the brightest galaxies towards the lens, and use the ESO-MUSE integral field spectrograph to measure the velocity-dispersion of the lens (⁠σ_(los) = 250^(+15)_(−21) km s⁻¹) and of several nearby galaxies. In addition, we measure photometric redshifts and stellar masses of all galaxies down to i < 23 mag, mainly based on Dark Energy Survey imaging (DR1). Our new catalogue, complemented with literature data, more than doubles the number of known galaxy spectroscopic redshifts in the direct vicinity of the lens, expanding to 116 (64) the number of spectroscopic redshifts for galaxies separated by less than 3 arcmin (2 arcmin ) from the lens. Using the flexion-shift as a measure of the amplitude of the gravitational perturbation, we identify two galaxy groups and three galaxies that require specific attention in the lens models. The ESO MUSE data enable us to measure the velocity-dispersions of three of these galaxies. These results are essential for the cosmological inference analysis presented in Rusu et al.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2483DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.08800arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Sluse, D.0000-0001-6116-2095
Goldstein, D. A.0000-0003-3461-8661
Additional Information:© 2019 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model). Accepted 2019 September 1. Received 2019 September 1; in original form 2019 May 17. Published: 05 September 2019. We thank Malte Tewes for his contribution to the H0LiCOW project. CER wishes to thank A. Tomczak for providing the PSF matching code. H0LiCOW and COSMOGRAIL are made possible thanks to the continuous work of all observers and technical staff obtaining the monitoring observations, in particular at the Swiss Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory. Euler is supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement No. 787886). This work was supported by World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan. TT thanks the Packard Foundation for generous support through a Packard Research Fellowship, the NSF for funding through NSF grant AST-1450141, ‘Collaborative Research: Accurate cosmology with strong gravitational lens time-delays’. SHS acknowledges support from the Max Planck Society through the Max Planck Research Group. KCW is supported in part by an EACOA Fellowship awarded by the East Asia Core Observatories Association, which consists of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute. S.H. acknowledges support by the DFG cluster of excellence ‘Origin and Structure of the Universe’ (www.universe-cluster.de). CER and CDF were funded through the NSF grant AST-1312329, ‘Collaborative Research: Accurate cosmology with strong gravitational lens time-delays’. AJS acknowledges support by NASA through STSCI grant HST-GO-15320. PJM acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC02-76SF00515. LVEK is supported in part through an NWO-VICI career grant (project number 639.043.308). Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programme(s) 091.A-0642(A) (PI: Sluse), and 074.A-0302(A) (PI: Rix), 60.A-9306(A), 097.A-0454(A) (PI: Sluse), 090.A-0531(A) (PI. Fassnacht). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory (PID: GS-2013A-Q-2, PI: Treu), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil). Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Física d’Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of Nottingham, The Ohio State University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, Texas A&M University, and the OzDES Membership Consortium. Based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers AST-1138766 and AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MINECO under grants AYA2015–71825, ESP2015–66861, FPA2015–68048, SEV-2016–0588, SEV-2016–0597, and MDM-2015–0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007–2013) including ERC grant agreements 240672, 291329, and 306478. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) e-Universe (CNPq grant 465376/2014-2). This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #12889. Support for program #12889 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. This work made extensive use of TOPCAT (Taylor 2014), and of Astropy, a community-developed core PYTHON package for Astronomy (The Astropy Collaboration 2013).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)787886
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1450141
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
East Asia Core Observatories AssociationUNSPECIFIED
Academia Sinica InstituteUNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatory of JapanUNSPECIFIED
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC)UNSPECIFIED
Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1312329
NASAHST-GO-15320
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)639.043.308
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
University of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
Ohio State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Texas A&M UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI)UNSPECIFIED
Argonne National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of California, Santa CruzUNSPECIFIED
University of CambridgeUNSPECIFIED
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y TecnológicasUNSPECIFIED
University College LondonUNSPECIFIED
DES-Brazil ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
University of EdinburghUNSPECIFIED
ETH ZurichUNSPECIFIED
Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (IEEC/CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Institut de Física d’Altes EnergiesUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Ludwig-Maximilians Universität MünchenUNSPECIFIED
Excellence Cluster UniverseUNSPECIFIED
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO)UNSPECIFIED
University of NottinghamUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
University of PortsmouthUNSPECIFIED
Stanford Linear Accelerator CenterUNSPECIFIED
Stanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of SussexUNSPECIFIED
OzDES Membership ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)UNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1138766
NSFAST-1536171
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-71825
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2015-66861
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2015-68048
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0597
Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de MaeztuMDM-2015-0509
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)240672
European Research Council (ERC)291329
European Research Council (ERC)306478
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)465376/2014-2
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
NASANAS 5-26555
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: strong – galaxies: groups: general – quasars: individual: WFI 2033−4723
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191206-081019666
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20191206-081019666
Official Citation:D Sluse, C E Rusu, C D Fassnacht, A Sonnenfeld, J Richard, M W Auger, L Coccato, K C Wong, S H Suyu, T Treu, A Agnello, S Birrer, V Bonvin, T Collett, F Courbin, S Hilbert, L V E Koopmans, O Tihhanova, P J Marshall, G Meylan, A J Shajib, J Annis, S Avila, E Bertin, D Brooks, E Buckley-Geer, D L Burke, A Carnero Rosell, M Carrasco Kind, J Carretero, F J Castander, L N da Costa, J De Vicente, S Desai, P Doel, A E Evrard, B Flaugher, J Frieman, J García-Bellido, D W Gerdes, D A Goldstein, R A Gruendl, J Gschwend, W G Hartley, D L Hollowood, K Honscheid, D J James, A G Kim, E Krause, K Kuehn, N Kuropatkin, M Lima, H Lin, M A G Maia, J L Marshall, P Melchior, F Menanteau, R Miquel, A A Plazas, E Sanchez, S Serrano, I Sevilla-Noarbe, M Smith, M Soares-Santos, F Sobreira, E Suchyta, M E C Swanson, G Tarle, H0LiCOW – X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033−4723, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 490, Issue 1, November 2019, Pages 613–633, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stz2483
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:100221
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Dec 2019 18:14
Last Modified:06 Dec 2019 18:14

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