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[C I](1–0) and [C I](2–1) in Resolved Local Galaxies

Crocker, Alison F. and Pellegrini, Eric and Smith, J.-D. T. and Draine, Bruce T. and Wilson, Christine D. and Wolfire, Mark and Armus, Lee and Brinks, Elias and Dale, Daniel A. and Groves, Brent and Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo and Hunt, Leslie K. and Kennicutt, Robert C. and Murphy, Eric J. and Sandstrom, Karin and Schinnerer, Eva and Rigopoulou, Dimitra and Rosolowsky, Erik and van der Werf, Paul (2019) [C I](1–0) and [C I](2–1) in Resolved Local Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal, 887 (1). Art. No. 105. ISSN 1538-4357.

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We present resolved [C I] line intensities of 18 nearby galaxies observed with the SPIRE FTS spectrometer on the Herschel Space Observatory. We use these data along with resolved CO line intensities from J_(up) = 1 to 7 to interpret what phase of the interstellar medium the [C I] lines trace within typical local galaxies. A tight, linear relation is found between the intensities of the CO(4–3) and [C I](2–1) lines; we hypothesize this is due to the similar upper level temperature of these two lines. We modeled the [C I] and CO line emission using large-velocity gradient models combined with an empirical template. According to this modeling, the [C I](1–0) line is clearly dominated by the low-excitation component. We determine [C I] to molecular mass conversion factors for both the [C I](1–0) and [C I](2–1) lines, with mean values of α_([C I](1−0)) = 7.3 M⊙ K⁻¹ km⁻¹ s pc⁻² and α_([C I](2−1)) = 34 M⊙ K⁻¹ km⁻¹ s pc⁻² with logarithmic root-mean-square spreads of 0.20 and 0.32 dex, respectively. The similar spread of α_([C I](1−0)) to α_(co) (derived using the CO(2–1) line) suggests that [C I](1–0) may be just as good a tracer of cold molecular gas as CO(2–1) in galaxies of this type. On the other hand, the wider spread of α_([C I](2−1)) and the tight relation found between [C I](2–1) and CO(4–3) suggest that much of the [C I](2–1) emission may originate in warmer molecular gas.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Crocker, Alison F.0000-0001-8513-4945
Smith, J.-D. T.0000-0003-1545-5078
Draine, Bruce T.0000-0002-0846-936X
Wilson, Christine D.0000-0001-5817-0991
Wolfire, Mark0000-0003-0030-9510
Armus, Lee0000-0003-3498-2973
Brinks, Elias0000-0002-7758-9699
Dale, Daniel A.0000-0002-5782-9093
Groves, Brent0000-0002-9768-0246
Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo0000-0002-2775-0595
Hunt, Leslie K.0000-0001-9162-2371
Kennicutt, Robert C.0000-0001-5448-1821
Murphy, Eric J.0000-0001-7089-7325
Sandstrom, Karin0000-0002-4378-8534
Schinnerer, Eva0000-0002-3933-7677
Rigopoulou, Dimitra0000-0001-6854-7545
Rosolowsky, Erik0000-0002-5204-2259
van der Werf, Paul0000-0001-5434-5942
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 March 3; revised 2019 August 23; accepted 2019 August 26; published 2019 December 13. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. C.D.W. acknowledges support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. M.G.W. was supported in part by NSF grant AST1411827. E.B. acknowledges support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council [grant No. ST/M001008/1]. L.K.H. is grateful to funding by the INAF PRIN-SKA program D.R. acknowledges support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (grant No. ST/N000919/1). E.R. acknowledges the support of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), funding reference number RGPIN-2017-03987. The Herschel spacecraft was designed, built, tested, and launched under a contract to ESA managed by the Herschel/Planck Project team by an industrial consortium under the overall responsibility of the prime contractor Thales Alenia Space (Cannes), and including Astrium (Friedrichshafen) responsible for the payload module and for system testing at spacecraft level, Thales Alenia Space (Turin) responsible for the service module, and Astrium (Toulouse) responsible for the telescope, with in excess of a hundred subcontractors. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff University (UK) and including Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). Software: RADEX (van der Tak et al. 2007), NADA (v1.6-1; Lee 2017), SciPy (
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)RGPIN-2017-03987
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001008/1
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/N000919/1
Subject Keywords:Interstellar atomic gas; Disk galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Interstellar atomic gas (833); Disk galaxies (391)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191216-133427273
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Alison F. Crocker et al 2019 ApJ 887 105
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:100303
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Dec 2019 22:06
Last Modified:16 Dec 2019 22:06

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