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Using [C II] 158 μm Emission from Isolated ISM Phases as a Star Formation Rate Indicator

Sutter, Jessica and Dale, Daniel A. and Croxall, Kevin V. and Pelligrini, Eric W. and Smith, J. D. T. and Appleton, Philip N. and Beirão, Pedro and Bolatto, Alberto D. and Calzetti, Daniela and Crocker, Alison and De Looze, Ilse and Draine, Bruce and Galametz, Maud and Groves, Brent A. and Helou, George and Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo and Hunt, Leslie K. and Kennicutt, Robert C. and Roussel, Hélène and Wolfire, Mark G. (2019) Using [C II] 158 μm Emission from Isolated ISM Phases as a Star Formation Rate Indicator. Astrophysical Journal, 886 (1). Art. No. 60. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab4da5.

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The brightest observed emission line in many star-forming galaxies is the [C II] 158 μm line, making it detectable up to z ~ 7. In order to better understand and quantify the [C II] emission as a tracer of star formation, the theoretical ratio between the [N II] 205 μm emission and the [C II] 158 μm emission has been employed to empirically determine the fraction of [C II] emission that originates from the ionized and neutral phases of the interstellar medium (ISM). Sub-kiloparsec measurements of the [C II] 158 μm and [N II] 205 μm lines in nearby galaxies have recently become available as part of the Key Insights in Nearby Galaxies: a Far Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) and Beyond the Peak programs. With the information from these two far-infrared lines along with the multi-wavelength suite of KINGFISH data, a calibration of the [C II] emission line as a star formation rate (SFR) indicator and a better understanding of the [C II] deficit are pursued. [C II] emission is also compared to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in these regions to compare photoelectric heating from PAH molecules to cooling by [C II] in the neutral and ionized phases of the ISM. We find that the [C II] emission originating in the neutral phase of the ISM does not exhibit a deficit with respect to the infrared luminosity and is therefore preferred over the [C II] emission originating in the ionized phase of the ISM as an SFR indicator for the normal star-forming galaxies included in this sample.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Sutter, Jessica0000-0002-9183-8102
Dale, Daniel A.0000-0002-5782-9093
Croxall, Kevin V.0000-0002-5258-7224
Smith, J. D. T.0000-0003-1545-5078
Appleton, Philip N.0000-0002-7607-8766
Bolatto, Alberto D.0000-0002-5480-5686
Calzetti, Daniela0000-0002-5189-8004
Crocker, Alison0000-0001-8513-4945
Draine, Bruce0000-0002-0846-936X
Galametz, Maud0000-0002-0283-8689
Groves, Brent A.0000-0002-9768-0246
Helou, George0000-0003-3367-3415
Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo0000-0002-2775-0595
Hunt, Leslie K.0000-0001-9162-2371
Kennicutt, Robert C.0000-0001-5448-1821
Wolfire, Mark G.0000-0003-0030-9510
Alternate Title:Using [CII] 158 micron Emission From Isolated ISM Phases as a Star-Formation Rate Indicator
Additional Information:© 2019 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 March 15; revised 2019 October 1; accepted 2019 October 10; published 2019 November 20. We would like to thank George Privon and Tanio Díaz-Santos for enlightening discussions and contributions. D.A.D. would like to thank IPAC/Caltech for hosting him during the beginning stages of this research. This work was supported by NASA Headquarters under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Grant #80NSSC18K1107, as the Wyoming NASA Space Grant Consortium, NASA Grant #NNX15AI08H. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA. IRAF, the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility, has been developed by the National Optical Astronomy Observatories and the Space Telescope Science Institute.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship80NSSC18K1107
Subject Keywords:Galactic and extragalactic astronomy; Far infrared astronomy; Interstellar medium; Photodissociation regions; Star forming regions
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galactic and extragalactic astronomy (563); Far infrared astronomy (529); Interstellar medium (847); Photodissociation regions (1223); Star forming regions (1565)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20191216-140847928
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jessica Sutter et al 2019 ApJ 886 60
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:100307
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Dec 2019 22:16
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:53

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