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GW190425: Observation of a Compact Binary Coalescence with Total Mass ~3.4 M⊙

Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. X. and Anand, S. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barish, B. C. and Billingsley, G. and Biscans, S. and Blackburn, J. K. and Bork, R. and Brooks, A. F. and Brunett, S. and Cahillane, C. and Callister, T. A. and Coughlin, M. W. and Couvares, P. and Coyne, D. C. and Ehrens, P. and Etzel, T. and Feicht, J. and Gossan, S. E. and Grassia, P. and Gupta, Anchal and Gustafson, E. K. and Kamai, B. and Kanner, J. B. and Kasprzack, M. and Kondrashov, V. and Korth, W. Z. and Kozak, D. B. and Lazzarini, A. and Lo, R. K. L. and Markowitz, A. and Maros, E. and Massinger, T. J. and Matichard, F. and McIver, J. and Meshkov, S. and Nevin, L. and Pedraza, M. and Reitze, D. H. and Richardson, J. W. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sanchez, L. E. and Sun, L. and Tao, D. and Taylor, R. and Torrie, C. I. and Vajente, G. and Vass, S. and Venugopalan, G. and Wade, A. R. and Wallace, L. and Weinstein, A. J. and Willis, J. L. and Wipf, C. C. and Xiao, S. and Yamamoto, H. and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. and Barkett, K. and Blackman, J. and Chen, Y. and Li, X. and Ma, Y. and Scheel, M. and Tso, R. and Varma, V. and Chatziioannou, K. (2020) GW190425: Observation of a Compact Binary Coalescence with Total Mass ~3.4 M⊙. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 892 (1). Art. No. L3. ISSN 2041-8213. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/ab75f5.

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On 2019 April 25, the LIGO Livingston detector observed a compact binary coalescence with signal-to-noise ratio 12.9. The Virgo detector was also taking data that did not contribute to detection due to a low signal-to-noise ratio, but were used for subsequent parameter estimation. The 90% credible intervals for the component masses range from 1.12 to 2.52 M⊙ (1.46 – 1.87 M⊙ if we restrict the dimensionless component spin magnitudes to be smaller than 0.05). These mass parameters are consistent with the individual binary components being neutron stars. However, both the source-frame chirp mass 1.44^(+0.02)_(-0.02) M⊙ and the total mass 3.4^(+0.3)_(-0.1) M⊙ of this system are significantly larger than those of any other known binary neutron star (BNS) system. The possibility that one or both binary components of the system are black holes cannot be ruled out from gravitational-wave data. We discuss possible origins of the system based on its inconsistency with the known Galactic BNS population. Under the assumption that the signal was produced by a BNS coalescence, the local rate of neutron star mergers is updated to 250–2810 Gpc⁻³ yr⁻¹.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Anand, S.0000-0003-3768-7515
Arai, K.0000-0001-8916-8915
Araya, M. C.0000-0002-6018-6447
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Biscans, S.0000-0002-9635-7527
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Cahillane, C.0000-0002-3888-314X
Callister, T. A.0000-0001-9892-177X
Coughlin, M. W.0000-0002-8262-2924
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Feicht, J.0000-0001-5223-7091
Gossan, S. E.0000-0002-8138-9198
Gupta, Anchal0000-0002-1762-9644
Kamai, B.0000-0001-6521-9351
Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
Kasprzack, M.0000-0003-4618-5939
Korth, W. Z.0000-0003-3527-1348
Kozak, D. B.0000-0003-3118-8950
Lo, R. K. L.0000-0003-1561-6716
Massinger, T. J.0000-0002-3429-5025
Matichard, F.0000-0001-8982-8418
McIver, J.0000-0003-0316-1355
Meshkov, S.0000-0002-7973-5338
Reitze, D. H.0000-0002-5756-1111
Richardson, J. W.0000-0002-1472-4806
Rollins, J. G.0000-0002-9388-2799
Sun, L.0000-0001-7959-892X
Vajente, G.0000-0002-7656-6882
Venugopalan, G.0000-0003-4414-9918
Wade, A. R.0000-0002-5360-7215
Weinstein, A. J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Barkett, K.0000-0001-8230-4363
Blackman, J.0000-0002-7113-0289
Chen, Y.0000-0002-9730-9463
Ma, Y.0000-0001-7192-4874
Scheel, M.0000-0001-6656-9134
Tso, R.0000-0003-4464-0117
Varma, V.0000-0002-9994-1761
Chatziioannou, K.0000-0002-5833-413X
Additional Information:© 2020 The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2019 December 25; revised 2020 February 12; accepted 2020 February 13; published 2020 March 19. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d'Innovació Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d'Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d'Educació Investigació Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat Valenciana, the National Science Centre of Poland, the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the Paris Île-de-France Region, the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFIH), the National Research Foundation of Korea, Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations, and Communications, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, INFN and CNRS for provision of computational resources. This work has been assigned LIGO document number LIGO-P190425. Software: The detection of the signal and subsequent significance evalution have been performed using the GstLAL-based inspiral software pipeline (Cannon et al. 2012; Privitera et al. 2014; Messick et al. 2017; Hanna et al. 2019; Sachdev et al. 2019). These are built on the LALSuite software library (LIGO Scientific Collaboration 2018). The signal was also verified using the PyCBC (Usman et al. 2016; Nitz et al. 2018, 2019), MBTAOnline (Adams et al. 2016) and SPIIR (Hooper et al. 2012; Luan et al. 2012; Chu 2017; Guo et al. 2018) packages. The parameter estimation was performed with the LALInference (Veitch et al. 2015) and LALSimulation libraries within LALSuite (LIGO Scientific Collaboration 2018); additional checks were performed using the Bilby library (Ashton et al. 2019) and the dynesty Nested Sampling package (Speagle 2019). The estimates of the noise spectra and the postmerger analysis were performed using BayesWave (Cornish & Littenberg 2015; Littenberg & Cornish 2015). The sky map plot has made use of Astropy,206 a community-developed core Python package for Astronomy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013; Price-Whelan et al. 2018) and ligo.skymap.207 All plots have been prepared using Matplotlib (Hunter 2007).
Group:Astronomy Department, LIGO
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Stichting voor Fundamenteel Onderzoek der Materie (FOM)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Science and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Human Resource Development (India)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació, Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Educació, Investigació, Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Funds (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
Paris Île-de-France RegionUNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Hungary)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Industry CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovações e Comunicações (MCTIC)UNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Neutron stars ; Gravitational waves
Other Numbering System:
Other Numbering System NameOther Numbering System ID
LIGO DocumentP190425
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Neutron stars (1108); Gravitational waves (678)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200107-113616747
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:B. P. Abbott et al 2020 ApJL 892 L3
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:100541
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:07 Jan 2020 21:43
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:54

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