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The 22 December 2018 tsunami from flank collapse of Anak Krakatau volcano during eruption

Ye, Lingling and Kanamori, Hiroo and Rivera, Luis and Lay, Thorne and Zhou, Yu and Sianipar, Dimas and Satake, Kenji (2020) The 22 December 2018 tsunami from flank collapse of Anak Krakatau volcano during eruption. Science Advances, 6 (3). Art. No. eaaz1377. ISSN 2375-2548. PMCID PMC6962046. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaz1377.

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On 22 December 2018, a devastating tsunami struck Sunda Strait, Indonesia without warning, leaving 437 dead and thousands injured along the western Java and southern Sumatra coastlines. Synthetic aperture radar and broadband seismic observations demonstrate that a small, <~0.2 km³ landslide on the southwestern flank of the actively erupting volcano Anak Krakatau generated the tsunami. The landslide did not produce strong short-period seismic waves; thus, precursory ground shaking did not provide a tsunami warning. The source of long-period ground motions during the landslide can be represented as a 12° upward-dipping single-force directed northeastward, with peak magnitude of ~6.1 × 10¹¹ N and quasi-sinusoidal time duration of ~70 s. Rapid quantification of a landslide source process by long-period seismic wave inversions for moment-tensor and single-force parameterizations using regional seismic data available within ~8 min can provide a basis for future fast tsunami warnings, as is also the case for tsunami earthquakes.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Materials CentralArticle
Ye, Lingling0000-0002-8739-2072
Kanamori, Hiroo0000-0001-8219-9428
Rivera, Luis0000-0002-0726-5445
Lay, Thorne0000-0003-2360-4213
Satake, Kenji0000-0002-3368-3085
Additional Information:© 2020 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works. Distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License 4.0 (CC BY-NC). Submitted 19 August 2019; Accepted 15 November 2019; Published 15 January 2020. We thank three anonymous reviewers for their comments on the manuscript, which helped to improve the presentation. This study was supported by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (to L.Y.), National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 41874056 to L.Y.; no. 41874020 to Y.Z.), and the NSF (grant EAR1802364 to T.L.). Author contributions: L.Y. and H.K. conceived the project; L.Y., H.K., and T.L. designed the single-station deconvolution procedure; H.K., L.R., and L.Y. conducted moment-tensor and single-force inversions; Y.Z. performed SAR image analysis of Sentinel data; D.S. collected IA data; and all coauthors wrote the manuscript collaboratively. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials. The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) data management service (DMS) ( was used to access the long-period (LH) seismic data from Global Seismic Network and Federation of Digital Seismic Network stations. Japan F-net broadband data are available from the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED) ( Indonesia seismic data (IA-Net) are available from the Agency for Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) upon request. The Sentinel-1 images were obtained from the European Space Agency ( The pre-event DEM is the Indonesian National DEM (DEMNAS), which is freely available from Additional data related to this paper may be requested from the authors.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Fundamental Research Funds for the Central UniversitiesUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China41874056
National Natural Science Foundation of China41874020
Issue or Number:3
PubMed Central ID:PMC6962046
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200115-152233421
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:L. Ye, H. Kanamori, L. Rivera, T. Lay, Y. Zhou, D. Sianipar, K. Satake, The 22 December 2018 tsunami from flank collapse of Anak Krakatau volcano during eruption. Sci. Adv. 6, eaaz1377 (2020); doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aaz1377
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:100743
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Jan 2020 23:31
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:56

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