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A 2-D Pseudospectral Time-Domain (PSTD) Simulator for Large-Scale Electromagnetic Scattering and Radar Sounding Applications

Lei, Yang and Haynes, Mark S. and Arumugam, Darmindra and Elachi, Charles (2020) A 2-D Pseudospectral Time-Domain (PSTD) Simulator for Large-Scale Electromagnetic Scattering and Radar Sounding Applications. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 58 (6). pp. 4076-4098. ISSN 0196-2892. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200116-141857056

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Abstract

This article discusses the implementation of a 2-D pseudospectral time-domain (PSTD) full-wave simulator for solving large-scale low-frequency (e.g., HF) electromagnetic (EM) scattering problems with the application of radar sounding of planetary subsurfaces. Compared to other computational EM algorithms, the PSTD solver is both memory-efficient and accurate for sounding applications. New domain designs are developed to efficiently simulate 2-D scattering of half-space media for normal and oblique incidence from arbitrary wave sources. As a validation of the PSTD simulator, the simulated 2-D scattering radar cross width (RCW) is compared with the analytical solutions of both point targets (dielectric cylinders) and distributed targets (random rough surfaces), for the first time, where the frequency and angular (bistatic scattering) dependence are studied with various choices of grid sampling resolution. Furthermore, the PSTD solver is applied to passive synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sounding problems (single transmitter and several receivers), for the first time, where various scenarios (e.g., cylinder, surface, and volume) are demonstrated and the targets are correctly resolved after focusing, indicating an accurate simulation of the phase history. Finally, an example of using the solver is shown for emulating 3-D large-scale radar sounding problems with cross-track surface and subsurface scattering. This is particularly useful to simulate radar sounding returns and SAR-focused imagery of large-scale subsurface structures to better support planetary missions with radar sounding instruments.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1109/tgrs.2019.2960751DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Lei, Yang0000-0002-8377-1980
Haynes, Mark S.0000-0003-2119-2083
Arumugam, Darmindra0000-0001-9697-3859
Additional Information:© 2020 IEEE. Manuscript received April 23, 2019; revised October 21, 2019 and December 10, 2019; accepted December 11, 2019. Date of publication January 13, 2020; date of current version May 21, 2020. This work was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and supported in part by NASA through the Europa Clipper Project. U.S. Government sponsorship acknowledged.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Electromagnetic (EM) scattering, focusing, pseudospectral time domain (PSTD), radar, sounding, synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
Issue or Number:6
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200116-141857056
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200116-141857056
Official Citation:Y. Lei, M. S. Haynes, D. Arumugam and C. Elachi, "A 2-D Pseudospectral Time-Domain (PSTD) Simulator for Large-Scale Electromagnetic Scattering and Radar Sounding Applications," in IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 4076-4098, June 2020, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2019.2960751
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:100767
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:16 Jan 2020 22:29
Last Modified:21 May 2020 22:04

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