A Caltech Library Service

Full orbital solution for the binary system in the northern Galactic disc microlensing event Gaia16aye

Wyrzykowski, Ł. and Calchi Novati, S. (2020) Full orbital solution for the binary system in the northern Galactic disc microlensing event Gaia16aye. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 633 . Art. No. A98. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201935097.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Accepted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Gaia16aye was a binary microlensing event discovered in the direction towards the northern Galactic disc and was one of the first microlensing events detected and alerted to by the Gaia space mission. Its light curve exhibited five distinct brightening episodes, reaching up to I = 12 mag, and it was covered in great detail with almost 25 000 data points gathered by a network of telescopes. We present the photometric and spectroscopic follow-up covering 500 days of the event evolution. We employed a full Keplerian binary orbit microlensing model combined with the motion of Earth and Gaia around the Sun to reproduce the complex light curve. The photometric data allowed us to solve the microlensing event entirely and to derive the complete and unique set of orbital parameters of the binary lensing system. We also report on the detection of the first-ever microlensing space-parallax between the Earth and Gaia located at L2. The properties of the binary system were derived from microlensing parameters, and we found that the system is composed of two main-sequence stars with masses 0.57 ± 0.05 M⊙ and 0.36 ± 0.03 M⊙ at 780 pc, with an orbital period of 2.88 years and an eccentricity of 0.30. We also predict the astrometric microlensing signal for this binary lens as it will be seen by Gaia as well as the radial velocity curve for the binary system. Events such as Gaia16aye indicate the potential for the microlensing method of probing the mass function of dark objects, including black holes, in directions other than that of the Galactic bulge. This case also emphasises the importance of long-term time-domain coordinated observations that can be made with a network of heterogeneous telescopes.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Calchi Novati, S.0000-0002-7669-1069
Additional Information:© 2020 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 22 January 2019; Accepted 10 October 2019; Published online 21 January 2020. This work relies on the results from the European Space Agency (ESA) space mission Gaia. Gaia data are being processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). Funding for the DPAC is provided by national institutions, in particular the institutions participating in the Gaia Multi-Lateral Agreement (MLA). The Gaia mission website is In particular we acknowledge Gaia Photometric Science Alerts Team, website We thank the members of the OGLE team for discussions and support. We also would like to thank the Polish Children Fund (KFnRD) for support of an internship of their pupils in Ostrowik Observatory of the Warsaw University, during which some of the data were collected, in particular we thank: Robert Nowicki, Michał Porębski and Karol Niczyj. The work presented here has been supported by the following grants from the Polish National Science Centre (NCN): HARMONIA NCN grant 2015/18/M/ST9/00544, OPUS NCN grant 2015/17/B/ST9/03167, DAINA NCN grant 2017/27/L/ST9/03221, as well as European Commission’s FP7 and H2020 OPTICON grants (312430 and 730890), Polish Ministry of Higher Education support for OPTICON FP7, 3040/7.PR/2014/2, MNiSW grant DIR/WK/2018/12. PMr and JS acknowledge support from MAESTRO NCN grant 2014/14/A/ST9/00121 to Andrzej Udalski. We would like to thank the following members of the AAVSO for their amazing work with collecting vast amounts of data: Teofilo Arranz, James Boardman, Stephen Brincat, Geoff Chaplin, Emery Erdelyi, Rafael Farfan, William Goff, Franklin Guenther, Kevin Hills, Jens Jacobsen, Raymond Kneip, David Lane, Fernando Limon Martinez, Gianpiero Locatelli, Andrea Mantero, Attila Madai, Peter Meadows, Otmar Nickel, Arto Oksanen, Luis Perez, Roger Pieri, Ulisse Quadri, Diego Rodriguez Perez, Frank Schorr, George Sjoberg, Andras Timar, Ray Tomlin, Tonny Vanmunster, Klaus Wenzel, Thomas Wikander. We also thank the amateur observers from around the world, in particular, Pietro Capuozzo, Leone Trascianelli, Igor Zharkov from Ardingly College and Angelo Tomassini, Karl-Ludwig Bath. We also thank Roger Pickard from the British Astronomical Association and Matthias Penselin from the German Haus der Astronomie association for their contributions. KS thanks Dr. Dmitry Chulkov and Dr. Panagiotis Gavras for the interesting discussion of stellar multiplicity. We acknowledge support of DDT programmes SW2016b12 (WHT) and A34DDT3 (TNG). The INT, TNG and WHT are operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The Liverpool Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. SJF would like to thank the UCL students who assisted with the collection and checking of UCLO data for the observing campaign: Martina Aghopian, Ashleigh Arendt, Artem Barinov, Luke Barrett, Jasper Berry-Gair, Arjun Bhogal, Charles Bowesman, William Boyd, Andrei Cuceu, Michael Davies, Max Freedman, Gabriel Fu, Abirami Govindaraju, Iandeep Hothi, Clara Matthews Torres, Darius Modirrousta-Galian, Petru Neague, George Pattinson, Xiaoxi Song, and Brian Yu. P.Mr. acknowledges support from the Foundation for Polish Science (Program START) and the National Science Center, Poland (grant ETIUDA 2018/28/T/ST9/00096). AC, AG and NI acknowledge the financial support from the Slovenian Research Agency (research core funding No. P1-0031 and project grant No. J1-8136) and networking support by the COST Action GWverse CA16104. Skinakas Observatory is a collaborative project of the University of Crete and the Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas. Work by C.H. was supported by the grant (2017R1A4A1015178) of National Research Foundation of Korea. KW acknowledges funding from STFC, and thanks the University of Leicester for the investment in instrumentation. We gratefully acknowledge financial support by the European Space Agency under the NELIOTA program, contract No. 4000112943. This work has made use of data obtained with the Kryoneri Prime Focus Instrument, developed by the European Space Agency NELIOTA project on the 1.2 m Kryoneri telescope, which is operated by IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, Greece. The Aristarchos telescope is operated on Helmos Observatory by the IAASARS of the National Observatory of Athens. This work was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No 1545949. This work was supported by the MINECO (Spanish Ministry of Economy) through grant ESP2016-80079-C2-1-R (MINECO/FEDER, UE) and ESP2014-55996-C2-1-R (MINECO/FEDER, UE) and MDM-2014-0369 of ICCUB (Unidad de Excelencia a María de Maeztu). This work was supported by the MINECO (Spanish Ministry of Economy) through grant ESP2016-80079-C2-1-R and RTI2018-095076-B-C21 (MINECO/FEDER, UE), and MDM-2014-0369 of ICCUB (Unidad de Excelencia ’María de Maeztu’). The Joan Oró Telescope (TJO) of the Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM) is owned by the Catalan Government and is operated by the Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC). Support to this study has been provided by Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) through grants ASI I/058/10/0 and ASI 2014-025-R.1.2015. KW thanks Dipali Thanki and Ray McErlean for their technical support of the scientific programme of the University of Leicester observatory. This work was supported by Royal Society Research Grant RG170230. CCN thanks the funding from Ministry of Science and Technology (Taiwan) under the contracts 104-2112-M-008-012-MY3 and 104-2923-M-008-004-MY5. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / ERC Grant Agreement n. 320964 (WDTracer). We thank the Las Cumbres Observatory and its staff for its continuing support of the project. ASAS-SN is supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant GBMF5490 to the Ohio State University and NSF grant AST-1515927. Development of ASAS-SN has been supported by NSF grant AST-0908816, the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation, the Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics at the Ohio State University, the Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy (CAS- SACA), the Villum Foundation, and George Skestos. ARM acknowledges support from the MINECO under the Ramón y Cajal programme (RYC-2016-20254) and the AYA2017-86274-P grant, and the AGAUR grant SGR-661/2017. We acknowledge support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (TB and RWW; ST/P000541/1). K.Horne acknowledges support from STFC consolidated grant ST/M001296/1. This work was partly supported by the Research Council of Lithuania, grant No. S-LL-19-2 Authors thank to TÜBİTAK, IKI, KFU, and AST for partial supports in using RTT150 (Russian-Turkish 1.5-m telescope in Antalya). This work was partially funded by the subsidy 3.6714.2017/8.9 allocated to Kazan Federal University for the state assignment in the sphere of scientific activities. This research was partially supported by contract DN 18/13-12.12.2017 with the National Science Fund (Bulgaria). Work by YS was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, administered by Universities Space Research Association through a contract with NASA. GD gratefully acknowledges the observing grant support from the Institute of Astronomy and NAO Rozhen, BAS, via bilateral joint research project “Study of ICRF radio-sources and fast variable astronomical objects” (PI:G.Damljanovic). This work is a part of the Projects no. 176011 “Dynamics and kinematics of celestial bodies and systems”, no. 176004 “Stellar physics” and no. 176021 ”Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations” supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. YT acknowledges the support of DFG priority program SPP 1992 “Exploring the diversity of Extrasolar Planets” (WA 1074/11-1). This work of PMi, DM and ZK was supported by the NCN grant no. 2016/21/B/ST9/01126. ARM acknowledges support from the MINECO Ramón y Cajal programme RYJ-2016-20254 and grant AYA2017-86274-P and from the AGAUR grant SGR-661/2017. The work by C. R. was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by USRA through a contract with NASA. The Faulkes Telescope Project is an education partner of Las Cumbres Observatory (LCO). The Faulkes Telescopes are maintained and operated by LCO. This research was made possible through the use of the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey (APASS), funded by the Robert Martin Ayers Sciences Fund and NSF AST-1412587. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)2015/18/M/ST9/00544
National Science Centre (Poland)2015/17/B/ST9/03167
National Science Centre (Poland)2017/27/L/ST9/03221
European Research Council (ERC)312430
European Research Council (ERC)730890
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego (MNiSW)3040/7.PR/2014/2
Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego (MNiSW)DIR/WK/2018/12
National Science Centre (Poland)2014/14/A/ST9/00121
Foundation for Polish ScienceUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)ETIUDA 2018/28/T/ST9/00096
Slovenian Research AgencyP1-0031
Slovenian Research AgencyJ1-8136
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST)CA16104
National Research Foundation of Korea2017R1A4A1015178
European Space Agency (ESA)4000112943
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2016-80079-C2-1-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2014-55996-C2-1-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)MDM-2014-0369
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)RTI2018-095076-B-C21
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)I/058/10/0
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)2014-025-R.1.2015
Royal SocietyRG170230
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)104-2112-M-008-012-MY3
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)104-2923-M-008-004-MY5
European Research Council (ERC)320964
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF5490
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ohio State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy (CASSACA)UNSPECIFIED
Villum FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ramón y Cajal ProgrammeRYC-2016-20254
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2017-86274-P
Agencia de Gestión de Ayudas Universitarias y de InvestigaciónSGR-661/2017
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/P000541/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001296/1
Research Council of LithuaniaS-LL-19-2
Kazan Federal University3.6714.2017/8.9
National Science Fund (Bulgaria)DN 18/13-12.12.2017
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Institute of AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
Rozhen ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)176011
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)176004
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)176021
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SPP 1992
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)WA 1074/11-1
National Science Centre (Poland)2016/21/B/ST9/01126
Robert Martin Ayers Sciences FundUNSPECIFIED
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE)UNSPECIFIED
Los Alamos National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: micro – techniques: photometric – binaries: general – stars: individual: Gaia16aye-L
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200130-142743061
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Full orbital solution for the binary system in the northern Galactic disc microlensing event Gaia16aye. Ł. Wyrzykowski, P. Mróz, K. A. Rybicki, M. Gromadzki, Z. Kołaczkowski, M. Zieliński, P. Zieliński, N. Britavskiy, A. Gomboc, K. Sokolovsky, S. T. Hodgkin, L. Abe, G. F. Aldi, A. AlMannaei, G. Altavilla, A. Al Qasim, G. C. Anupama, S. Awiphan, E. Bachelet, V. Bakış, S. Baker, S. Bartlett, P. Bendjoya, K. Benson, I. F. Bikmaev, G. Birenbaum, N. Blagorodnova, S. Blanco-Cuaresma, S. Boeva, A. Z. Bonanos, V. Bozza, D. M. Bramich, I. Bruni, R. A. Burenin, U. Burgaz, T. Butterley, H. E. Caines, D. B. Caton, S. Calchi Novati, J. M. Carrasco, A. Cassan, V. Čepas, M. Cropper, M. Chruślińska, G. Clementini, A. Clerici, D. Conti, M. Conti, S. Cross, F. Cusano, G. Damljanovic, A. Dapergolas, G. D’Ago, J. H. J. de Bruijne, M. Dennefeld, V. S. Dhillon, M. Dominik, J. Dziedzic, O. Erece, M. V. Eselevich, H. Esenoglu, L. Eyer, R. Figuera Jaimes, S. J. Fossey, A. I. Galeev, S. A. Grebenev, A. C. Gupta, A. G. Gutaev, N. Hallakoun, A. Hamanowicz, C. Han, B. Handzlik, J. B. Haislip, L. Hanlon, L. K. Hardy, D. L. Harrison, H. J. van Heerden, V. L. Hoette, K. Horne, R. Hudec, M. Hundertmark, N. Ihanec, E. N. Irtuganov, R. Itoh, P. Iwanek, M. D. Jovanovic, R. Janulis, M. Jelínek, E. Jensen, Z. Kaczmarek, D. Katz, I. M. Khamitov, Y. Kilic, J. Klencki, U. Kolb, G. Kopacki, V. V. Kouprianov, K. Kruszyńska, S. Kurowski, G. Latev, C.-H. Lee, S. Leonini, G. Leto, F. Lewis, Z. Li, A. Liakos, S. P. Littlefair, J. Lu, C. J. Manser, S. Mao, D. Maoz, A. Martin-Carrillo, J. P. Marais, M. Maskoliūnas, J. R. Maund, P. J. Meintjes, S. S. Melnikov, K. Ment, P. Mikołajczyk, M. Morrell, N. Mowlavi, D. Moździerski, D. Murphy, S. Nazarov, H. Netzel, R. Nesci, C.-C. Ngeow, A. J. Norton, E. O. Ofek, E. Pakštienė, L. Palaversa, A. Pandey, E. Paraskeva, M. Pawlak, M. T. Penny, B. E. Penprase, A. Piascik, J. L. Prieto, J. K. T. Qvam, C. Ranc, A. Rebassa-Mansergas, D. E. Reichart, P. Reig, L. Rhodes, J.-P. Rivet, G. Rixon, D. Roberts, P. Rosi, D. M. Russell, R. Zanmar Sanchez, G. Scarpetta, G. Seabroke, B. J. Shappee, R. Schmidt, Y. Shvartzvald, M. Sitek, J. Skowron, M. Śniegowska, C. Snodgrass, P. S. Soares, B. van Soelen, Z. T. Spetsieri, A. Stankevičiūtė, I. A. Steele, R. A. Street, J. Strobl, E. Strubble, H. Szegedi, L. M. Tinjaca Ramirez, L. Tomasella, Y. Tsapras, D. Vernet, S. Villanueva, O. Vince, J. Wambsganss, I. P. van der Westhuizen, K. Wiersema, D. Wium, R. W. Wilson, A. Yoldas, R. Ya. Zhuchkov, D. G. Zhukov, J. Zdanavičius, S. Zoła and A. Zubareva. A&A, 633 (2020) A98. DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101010
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Jan 2020 23:00
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 17:58

Repository Staff Only: item control page