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The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Star-formation-driven outflows and circumgalactic enrichment in the early Universe

Ginolfi, M. and Faisst, A. and Capak, P. and Yan, L. (2020) The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Star-formation-driven outflows and circumgalactic enrichment in the early Universe. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 633 . Art. No. A90. ISSN 0004-6361.

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We study the efficiency of galactic feedback in the early Universe by stacking the [C II] 158 μm emission in a large sample of normal star-forming galaxies at 4 <  z <  6 from the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE) survey. Searching for typical signatures of outflows in the high-velocity tails of the stacked [C II] profile, we observe (i) deviations from a single-component Gaussian model in the combined residuals and (ii) broad emission in the stacked [C II] spectrum, with velocities of |v|≲500 km s⁻¹. The significance of these features increases when stacking the subset of galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) higher than the median (SFR_(med) = 25 M⊙ yr⁻¹), thus confirming their star-formation-driven nature. The estimated mass outflow rates are comparable to the SFRs, yielding mass-loading factors of the order of unity (similarly to local star-forming galaxies), suggesting that star-formation-driven feedback may play a lesser role in quenching galaxies at z >  4. From the stacking analysis of the datacubes, we find that the combined [C II] core emission (|v|< 200 km s⁻¹) of the higher-SFR galaxies is extended on physical sizes of ∼30 kpc (diameter scale), well beyond the analogous [C II] core emission of lower-SFR galaxies and the stacked far-infrared continuum. The detection of such extended metal-enriched gas, likely tracing circumgalactic gas enriched by past outflows, corroborates previous similar studies, confirming that baryon cycle and gas exchanges with the circumgalactic medium are at work in normal star-forming galaxies already at early epochs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Faisst, A.0000-0002-9382-9832
Capak, P.0000-0003-3578-6843
Yan, L.0000-0003-1710-9339
Additional Information:© 2020 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 8 October 2019; Accepted 15 November 2019; Published online 15 January 2020. The authors would like to thank the anonymous referee for the useful suggestions. M.G. would like to thank Andrea Ferrara, Simona Gallerani, Andrea Pallottini, Stefano Carniani, Jorryt Matthee, Emanuele Daddi, Andreas Schruba and Roberto Decarli for helpful discussions. G.C.J. and R.M. acknowledge ERC Advanced Grant 695671 “QUENCH” and support by the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). M.B. acknowledges FONDECYT regular grant 1170618. E. I. acknowledges partial support? from FONDECYT through grant N° 1171710. F.L., C.G., F.P. and M.T. acknowledge the support from a grant PRIN MIUR 2017. L.V. acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant agreement No. 746119. S.T. acknowledges support from the ERC Consolidator Grant funding scheme (project Con-TExT, grant No. 648179). The Cosmic Dawn Center is funded by the Danish National Research Foundation under grant No. 140. R.C. acknowledges financial support from CONICYT Doctorado Nacional N° 21161487 and CONICYT PIA ACT172033. J.D.S is supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number *JP18H04346*, and the World Premier International Research Center Initiative (WPI Initiative), MEXT, Japan. This paper is based on data obtained with the ALMA Observatory, under Large Program 2017.1.00428.L. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. This program receives financial support from the French CNRS-INSU Programme National Cosmologie et Galaxies.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)695671
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1170618
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1171710
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)UNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie Fellowship746119
European Research Council (ERC)648179
Danish National Research Foundation140
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)21161487
Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)PIA ACT172033
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP18H04346
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution – galaxies: formation – galaxies: high-redshift – galaxies: ISM – ISM: jets and outflows – galaxies: star formation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200130-151621572
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:The ALPINE-ALMA [C II] survey: Star-formation-driven outflows and circumgalactic enrichment in the early Universe. M. Ginolfi, G. C. Jones, M. Béthermin, Y. Fudamoto, F. Loiacono, S. Fujimoto, O. Le Févre, A. Faisst, D. Schaerer, P. Cassata, J. D. Silverman, L. Yan, P. Capak, S. Bardelli, M. Boquien, R. Carraro, M. Dessauges-Zavadsky, M. Giavalisco, C. Gruppioni, E. Ibar, Y. Khusanova, B. C. Lemaux, R. Maiolino, D. Narayanan, P. Oesch, F. Pozzi, G. Rodighiero, M. Talia, S. Toft, L. Vallini, D. Vergani and G. Zamorani. A&A, 633 (2020) A90; DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101013
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 Jan 2020 23:47
Last Modified:30 Jan 2020 23:47

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