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The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Orion Protostars. II. A Statistical Characterization of Class 0 and Class I Protostellar Disks

Tobin, John J. and Furlan, Elise (2020) The VLA/ALMA Nascent Disk and Multiplicity (VANDAM) Survey of Orion Protostars. II. A Statistical Characterization of Class 0 and Class I Protostellar Disks. Astrophysical Journal, 890 (2). Art. No. 130. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab6f64.

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We have conducted a survey of 328 protostars in the Orion molecular clouds with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at 0.87 mm at a resolution of ~0.”1 (40 au), including observations with the Very Large Array at 9 mm toward 148 protostars at a resolution of ~0 08 (32 au). This is the largest multiwavelength survey of protostars at this resolution by an order of magnitude. We use the dust continuum emission at 0.87 and 9 mm to measure the dust disk radii and masses toward the Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum protostars, characterizing the evolution of these disk properties in the protostellar phase. The mean dust disk radii for the Class 0, Class I, and flat-spectrum protostars are 44.9^(+5.8)_(−3.4), 37.0^(+4.9)_(−3.0), and 28.5^(+3.7)_(−2.3) au, respectively, and the mean protostellar dust disk masses are 25.9^(+7.7)_(−4.0), 14.9^(+3.8)_(−2.2), 1.6^(+3.5)_(−1.9) M⊕, respectively. The decrease in dust disk masses is expected from disk evolution and accretion, but the decrease in disk radii may point to the initial conditions of star formation not leading to the systematic growth of disk radii or that radial drift is keeping the dust disk sizes small. At least 146 protostellar disks (35% of 379 detected 0.87 mm continuum sources plus 42 nondetections) have disk radii greater than 50 au in our sample. These properties are not found to vary significantly between different regions within Orion. The protostellar dust disk mass distributions are systematically larger than those of Class II disks by a factor of >4, providing evidence that the cores of giant planets may need to at least begin their formation during the protostellar phase.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Tobin, John J.0000-0002-6195-0152
Furlan, Elise0000-0001-9800-6248
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 September 23; revised 2019 December 16; accepted 2019 December 19; published 2020 February 20. The authors wish to thank the referee, J. Williams, for a constructive report and useful suggestions with regard to comparing with the Ophiuchus disk sample. The authors also thank J. Eisner for supplying the dust disk mass distributions for the Class II disk samples. J.J.T. acknowledges support from NSF AST-1814762 and past support from the Homer L. Dodge Endowed Chair. Z.Y.L. is supported in part by NASA 80NSSC18K1095 and NSF AST-1716259, 1815784, and 1910106. G.A., M.O., and A.K.D.-R. acknowledge financial support from the State Agency for Research of the Spanish MCIU through the AYA2017-84390-C2-1-R grant (cofunded by FEDER) and the "Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa" award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (SEV-2017-0709). M.L.R.H. acknowledges support from a Huygens fellowship from Leiden University. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00041.S. ALMA is a partnership of the ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with the NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by the ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. The PI acknowledges assistance from Allegro, the European ALMA Regional Center node in the Netherlands. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. This research made use of APLpy, an open-source plotting package for Python hosted at This research made use of Astropy, a community-developed core Python package for astronomy, Facilities: ALMA - Atacama Large Millimeter Array, VLA. - Software: Astropy (; Astropy Collaboration et al. 2018; Greenfield et al. 2013), APLpy (; Robitaille & Bressert 2012), CASA (; McMullin et al. 2007).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Homer L. Dodge Endowed ChairUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2017-84390-C2-1-R
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Severo OchoaSEV-2017-0709
Leiden UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Protostars; Protoplanetary disks; Young stellar objects; Star formation
Issue or Number:2
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Protostars (1302); Protoplanetary disks (1300); Young stellar objects (1834); Star formation (1569)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200220-150423580
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Official Citation:John J. Tobin et al 2020 ApJ 890 130
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101434
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Feb 2020 23:31
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:02

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