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Optical Characterization of the Keck Array and BICEP3 CMB Polarimeters from 2016 to 2019

St. Germaine, T. and Ade, P. A. R. and Ahmed, Z. and Amiri, M. and Barkats, D. and Basu Thakur, R. and Bischoff, C. A. and Bock, J. J. and Boenish, H. and Bullock, E. and Buza, V. and Cheshire, J. and Connors, J. and Cornelison, J. and Crumrine, M. and Cukierman, A. and Dierickx, M. and Duband, L. and Fatigoni, S. and Filippini, J. P. and Fliescher, S. and Grayson, J. A. and Hall, G. and Halpern, M. and Harrison, S. and Hildebrandt, S. R. and Hilton, G. C. and Hui, H. and Irwin, K. D. and Kang, J. and Karkare, K. S. and Karpel, E. and Kefeli, S. and Kernasovskiy, S. A. and Kovac, J. M. and Kuo, C. L. and Lau, K. and Leitch, E. M. and Megerian, K. G. and Moncelsi, L. and Namikawa, T. and Netterfield, C. B. and Nguyen, H. T. and O’Brient, R. and Ogburn, R. W. and Palladino, S. and Pryke, C. and Racine, B. and Reintsema, C. D. and Richter, S. and Schillaci, A. and Schwarz, R. and Sheehy, C. D. and Soliman, A. and Steinbach, B. and Sudiwala, R. V. and Thompson, K. L. and Tolan, J. E. and Tucker, C. and Turner, A. D. and Umiltà, C. and Vieregg, A. G. and Wandui, A. and Weber, A. C. and Wiebe, D. V. and Willmert, J. and Wong, C. L. and Wu, W. L. K. and Yang, E. and Yoon, K. W. and Young, E. and Yu, C. and Zhang, C. (2020) Optical Characterization of the Keck Array and BICEP3 CMB Polarimeters from 2016 to 2019. Journal of Low Temperature Physics, 199 (3-4). pp. 824-832. ISSN 0022-2291. doi:10.1007/s10909-020-02392-8.

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The BICEP/Keck experiment (BK) is a series of small-aperture refracting telescopes observing degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization from the South Pole in search of a primordial B-mode signature. This B-mode signal arises from primordial gravitational waves interacting with the CMB and has amplitude parametrized by the tensor-to-scalar ratio r. Since 2016, BICEP3 and the Keck Array have been observing with 4800 total antenna-coupled transition-edge sensor detectors, with frequency bands spanning 95, 150, 220, and 270 GHz. Here we present the optical performance of these receivers from 2016 to 2019, including far-field beams measured in situ with an improved chopped thermal source and instrument spectral response measured with a field-deployable Fourier transform spectrometer. As a pair differencing experiment, an important systematic that must be controlled is the differential beam response between the co-located, orthogonally polarized detectors. We generate per-detector far-field beam maps and the corresponding differential beam mismatch that is used to estimate the temperature-to-polarization leakage in our CMB maps and to give feedback on detector and optics fabrication. The differential beam parameters presented here were estimated using improved low-level beam map analysis techniques, including efficient removal of non-Gaussian noise as well as improved spatial masking. These techniques help minimize systematic uncertainty in the beam analysis, with the goal of constraining the bias on r induced by temperature-to-polarization leakage to be subdominant to the statistical uncertainty. This is essential as we progress to higher detector counts in the next generation of CMB experiments.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access Paper
Ade, P. A. R.0000-0002-5127-0401
Basu Thakur, R.0000-0002-3351-3078
Bock, J. J.0000-0002-5710-5212
Connors, J.0000-0002-6094-2943
Cukierman, A.0000-0002-7471-719X
Dierickx, M.0000-0002-3519-8593
Filippini, J. P.0000-0001-8217-6832
Halpern, M.0000-0002-1760-0868
Hildebrandt, S. R.0000-0003-0220-0009
Hilton, G. C.0000-0003-4247-467X
Karkare, K. S.0000-0002-5215-6993
Moncelsi, L.0000-0002-4242-3015
Schillaci, A.0000-0002-0512-1042
Tucker, C.0000-0002-1851-3918
Wandui, A.0000-0002-8232-7343
Wu, W. L. K.0000-0001-5411-6920
Zhang, C.0000-0001-8288-5823
Additional Information:© 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Received 31 August 2019; Accepted 05 February 2020; Published 24 February 2020. The BICEP/Keck projects have been made possible through a series of Grants from the National Science Foundation including 0742818, 0742592, 1044978, 1110087, 1145172, 1145143, 1145248, 1639040, 1638957, 1638978, 1638970, and 1726917, by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, by the Keck Foundation, and by the Grant 55802 from John Templeton Foundation. The development of antenna-coupled detector technology was supported by the JPL Research and Technology Development Fund and NASA Grants 06-ARPA206-0040, 10-SAT10-0017, 12-SAT12-0031, 14-SAT14-0009 and 16-SAT16-0002. The development and testing of focal planes were supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation at Caltech. Readout electronics were supported by a Canada Foundation for Innovation grant to UBC. The computations in this paper were run on the Odyssey cluster supported by the FAS Science Division Research Computing Group at Harvard University. The analysis effort at Stanford and SLAC is partially supported by the U.S. DoE Office of Science. We thank the staff of the U.S. Antarctic Program and in particular the South Pole Station without whose help this research would not have been possible. We thank all those who have contributed past efforts to the BICEP/Keck series of experiments, including the Bicep1 team. Tireless administrative support was provided by Kathy Deniston, Sheri Stoll, Irene Coyle, Donna Hernandez, Dana Volponi, and Julie Shih.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton Foundation55802
JPL Research and Technology Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Canada Foundation for InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Harvard UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Cosmic microwave background; Inflation; Polarization; Transition-edge sensor; Keck Array; BICEP3
Issue or Number:3-4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200225-100023216
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:St Germaine, T., Ade, P.A.R., Ahmed, Z. et al. Optical Characterization of the Keck Array and BICEP3 CMB Polarimeters from 2016 to 2019. J Low Temp Phys 199, 824–832 (2020).
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101528
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:25 Feb 2020 18:21
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:03

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