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Cloud Atlas: High-precision HST/WFC3/IR Time-resolved Observations of Directly Imaged Exoplanet HD 106906b

Zhou, Yifan and Apai, Dániel and Bedin, Luigi R. and Lew, Ben W. P. and Schneider, Glenn and Burgasser, Adam J. and Manjavacas, Elena and Karalidi, Theodora and Metchev, Stanimir and Miles-Páez, Paulo A. and Cowan, Nicolas B. and Lowrance, Patrick J. and Radigan, Jacqueline (2020) Cloud Atlas: High-precision HST/WFC3/IR Time-resolved Observations of Directly Imaged Exoplanet HD 106906b. Astronomical Journal, 159 (4). Art. No. 140. ISSN 1538-3881. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200304-081204921

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Abstract

HD 106906b is an ~11M_(Jup), ~15 Myr old directly imaged exoplanet orbiting at an extremely large distance from its host star. The wide separation (7 11) between HD 106906b and its host star greatly reduces the difficulty in direct-imaging observations, making it one of the most favorable directly imaged exoplanets for detailed characterization. In this paper, we present HST/WFC3/IR time-resolved observations of HD 106906b in the F127M, F139M, and F153M bands. We have achieved ~1% precision in the lightcurves in all three bands. The F127M lightcurve demonstrates marginally detectable (2.7σ significance) variability with a best-fitting period of 4 hr, while the lightcurves in the other two bands are consistent with flat lines. We construct primary-subtracted deep images and use these images to exclude additional companions to HD 106906 that are more massive than 4 M_(Jup) and locate at projected distances of more than ~500 au. We measure the astrometry of HD 106906b in two HST/WFC3 epochs and achieve precisions better than 2.5 mas. The position angle and separation measurements do not deviate from those in the 2004 HST/ACS/HRC images for more than 1σ uncertainty. We provide the HST/WFC3 astrometric results for 25 background stars that can be used as reference sources in future precision astrometry studies. Our observations also provide the first 1.4 μm water band photometric measurement for HD 106906b. HD 106906b's spectral energy distribution and the best-fitting BT-Settl model have an inconsistency in the 1.4 μm water absorption band, which highlights the challenges in modeling atmospheres of young planetary-mass objects.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-3881/ab6f65DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/2001.08304arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Zhou, Yifan0000-0003-2969-6040
Apai, Dániel0000-0003-3714-5855
Bedin, Luigi R.0000-0003-4080-6466
Lew, Ben W. P.0000-0003-1487-6452
Schneider, Glenn0000-0002-4511-5966
Burgasser, Adam J.0000-0002-6523-9536
Manjavacas, Elena0000-0003-0192-6887
Karalidi, Theodora0000-0001-7356-6652
Metchev, Stanimir0000-0003-3050-8203
Miles-Páez, Paulo A.0000-0003-2446-8882
Cowan, Nicolas B.0000-0001-6129-5699
Lowrance, Patrick J.0000-0001-8014-0270
Radigan, Jacqueline0000-0002-6732-3651
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 October 19; revised 2020 January 16; accepted 2020 January 17; published 2020 March 3. We thank the anonymous referee for a constructive referee report. D.A. acknowledges support by NASA under agreement No. NNX15AD94G for the program Earths in Other Solar Systems. Support for Program number 14241 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained in GO program 14241 at the Space Telescope Science Institute. Software: Numpy&Scipy (van der Walt et al. 2011), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), IPython (Perez & Granger 2007), Astropy (Robitaille et al. 2013), Seaborn (Waskom et al. 2017), Image Registration (Ginsburg et al. 2014), TinyTim (Krist 1995), pysynphot (STScI Development Team 2013).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANNX15AD94G
Space Telescope Science InstituteUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS5-26555
Subject Keywords:Near infrared astronomy ; Exoplanet atmospheres ; Exoplanet atmospheric variability ; Direct imaging ; Astrometry ; Time series analysis ; HST photometry
Issue or Number:4
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Near infrared astronomy (1093); Exoplanet atmospheres (487); Exoplanet atmospheric variability (2020); Direct imaging (387); Astrometry (80); Time series analysis (1916); HST photometry (756)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200304-081204921
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20200304-081204921
Official Citation:Yifan Zhou et al 2020 AJ 159 140
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101693
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 Mar 2020 20:07
Last Modified:04 Mar 2020 20:07

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