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The SPTpol Extended Cluster Survey

Bleem, L. E. and Bocquet, S. and Stalder, B. and Gladders, M. D. and Ade, P. A. R. and Allen, S. W. and Anderson, A. J. and Annis, J. and Ashby, M. L. N. and Austermann, J. E. and Avila, S. and Avva, J. S. and Bayliss, M. and Beall, J. A. and Bechtol, K. and Bender, A. N. and Benson, B. A. and Bertin, E. and Bianchini, F. and Blake, C. and Brodwin, M. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Carrasco Kind, M. and Carretero, J. and Chang, C. L. and Chiang, H. C. and Citron, R. and Moran, C. Corbett and Costanzi, M. and Crawford, T. M. and Crites, A. T. and da Costa, L. N. and de Haan, T. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Dietrich, J. P. and Dobbs, M. A. and Eifler, T. F. and Everett, W. and Flaugher, B. and Floyd, B. and Frieman, J. and Gallicchio, J. and García-Bellido, J. and George, E. M. and Gerdes, D. W. and Gilbert, A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gupta, N. and Gutierrez, G. and Halverson, N. W. and Harrington, N. and Henning, J. W. and Heymans, C. and Holder, G. P. and Hollowood, D. L. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Honscheid, K. and Hrubes, J. D. and Huang, N. and Hubmayr, J. and Irwin, K. D. and James, D. J. and Jeltema, T. and Joudaki, S. and Khullar, G. and Klein, M. and Knox, L. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lee, A. T. and Li, D. and Lidman, C. and Lowitz, A. and MacCrann, N. and Mahler, G. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and McDonald, M. and McMahon, J. J. and Melchior, P. and Menanteau, F. and Meyer, S. S. and Miquel, R. and Mocanu, L. M. and Mohr, J. J. and Montgomery, J. and Nadolski, A. and Natoli, T. and Nibarger, J. P. and Noble, G. and Novosad, V. and Padin, S. and Palmese, A. and Parkinson, D. and Patil, S. and Paz-Chinchón, F. and Plazas, A. A. and Pryke, C. and Ramachandra, N. S. and Reichardt, C. L. and Remolina González, J. D. and Romer, A. K. and Roodman, A. and Ruhl, J. E. and Rykoff, E. S. and Saliwanchik, B. R. and Sanchez, E. and Saro, A. and Sayre, J. T. and Schaffer, K. K. and Schrabback, T. and Serrano, S. and Sharon, K. and Sievers, C. and Smecher, G. and Smith, M. and Soares-Santos, M. and Stark, A. A. and Story, K. T. and Suchyta, E. and Tarle, G. and Tucker, C. and Vanderlinde, K. and Veach, T. and Vieira, J. D. and Wang, G. and Weller, J. and Whitehorn, N. and Wu, W. L. K. and Yefremenko, V. and Zhang, Y. (2020) The SPTpol Extended Cluster Survey. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 247 (1). Art. No. 25. ISSN 1538-4365. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/ab6993.

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We describe the observations and resultant galaxy cluster catalog from the 2770 deg² SPTpol Extended Cluster Survey (SPT-ECS). Clusters are identified via the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) effect and confirmed with a combination of archival and targeted follow-up data, making particular use of data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). With incomplete follow-up we have confirmed as clusters 244 of 266 candidates at a detection significance ξ ≥ 5 and an additional 204 systems at 4 < ξ < 5. The confirmed sample has a median mass of M_(500c) ∼ 4.4×10¹⁴ M⊙ h⁻¹₇₀ and a median redshift of z = 0.49, and we have identified 44 strong gravitational lenses in the sample thus far. Radio data are used to characterize contamination to the SZ signal; the median contamination for confirmed clusters is predicted to be ~1% of the SZ signal at the ξ > 4 threshold, and <4% of clusters have a predicted contamination >10% of their measured SZ flux. We associate SZ-selected clusters, from both SPT-ECS and the SPT-SZ survey, with clusters from the DES redMaPPer sample, and we find an offset distribution between the SZ center and central galaxy in general agreement with previous work, though with a larger fraction of clusters with significant offsets. Adopting a fixed Planck-like cosmology, we measure the optical richness–SZ mass (λ−M) relation and find it to be 28% shallower than that from a weak-lensing analysis of the DES data—a difference significant at the 4σ level—with the relations intersecting at λ = 60. The SPT-ECS cluster sample will be particularly useful for studying the evolution of massive clusters and, in combination with DES lensing observations and the SPT-SZ cluster sample, will be an important component of future cosmological analyses.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Bleem, L. E.0000-0001-7665-5079
Bocquet, S.0000-0002-4900-805X
Stalder, B.0000-0003-0973-4900
Ade, P. A. R.0000-0002-5127-0401
Annis, J.0000-0002-0609-3987
Ashby, M. L. N.0000-0002-3993-0745
Benson, B. A.0000-0002-5108-6823
Bianchini, F.0000-0003-4847-3483
Brodwin, M.0000-0002-4208-798X
Buckley-Geer, E.0000-0002-3304-0733
Rosell, A. Carnero0000-0003-3044-5150
Carrasco Kind, M.0000-0002-4802-3194
Carretero, J.0000-0002-3130-0204
Moran, C. Corbett0000-0003-2088-7465
Crawford, T. M.0000-0001-9000-5013
De Vicente, J.0000-0001-8318-6813
Desai, S.0000-0002-0466-3288
Diehl, H. T.0000-0002-8357-7467
Dietrich, J. P.0000-0002-8134-9591
Eifler, T. F.0000-0002-1894-3301
Frieman, J.0000-0003-4079-3263
García-Bellido, J.0000-0002-9370-8360
Gerdes, D. W.0000-0001-6942-2736
Gruen, D.0000-0003-3270-7644
Gruendl, R. A.0000-0002-4588-6517
Gutierrez, G.0000-0003-0825-0517
Hollowood, D. L.0000-0002-9369-4157
Khullar, G.0000-0002-3475-7648
Kuropatkin, N.0000-0003-2511-0946
Lidman, C.0000-0003-1731-0497
Mahler, G.0000-0003-3266-2001
Marshall, J. L.0000-0003-0710-9474
Melchior, P.0000-0002-8873-5065
Menanteau, F.0000-0002-1372-2534
Miquel, R.0000-0002-6610-4836
Palmese, A.0000-0002-6011-0530
Parkinson, D.0000-0002-7464-2351
Paz-Chinchón, F.0000-0003-1339-2683
Plazas, A. A.0000-0002-2598-0514
Reichardt, C. L.0000-0003-2226-9169
Remolina González, J. D.0000-0002-7868-9827
Romer, A. K.0000-0002-9328-879X
Roodman, A.0000-0001-5326-3486
Rykoff, E. S.0000-0001-9376-3135
Sanchez, E.0000-0002-9646-8198
Sharon, K.0000-0002-7559-0864
Smith, M.0000-0002-3321-1432
Soares-Santos, M.0000-0001-6082-8529
Stark, A. A.0000-0002-2718-9996
Suchyta, E.0000-0002-7047-9358
Tarle, G.0000-0003-1704-0781
Weller, J.0000-0002-8282-2010
Whitehorn, N.0000-0002-3157-0407
Wu, W. L. K.0000-0001-5411-6920
Additional Information:© 2020 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2019 October 14; revised 2019 December 3; accepted 2019 December 12; published 2020 March 5. This work was performed in the context of the South Pole Telescope scientific program. SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-0114422 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947 to the University of Chicago. This work is also supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. PISCO observations are supported by NSF AST-1814719. Work at Argonne National Lab is supported by UChicago Argonne LLC, operator of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science Laboratory, is operated under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. We also acknowledge support from the Argonne Center for Nanoscale Materials. M.G. and L.B. acknowledge partial support from HST-GO-15307.001. B.B. is supported by the Fermi Research Alliance LLC under contract No. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The CU Boulder group acknowledges support from NSF AST-0956135. The McGill authors acknowledge funding from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, and the Fonds de Recherche du Québec Nature et technologies. The UCLA authors acknowledge support from NSF AST-1716965 and CSSI-1835865. The Stanford/SLAC group acknowledges support from the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. A.S. is supported by the ERC-StG "ClustersXCosmo" grant agreement 716762 and by the FARE-MIUR grant "ClustersXEuclid" R165SBKTMA. C.H. acknowledges support from the Max Planck Society and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, in the framework of the Max Planck-Humboldt Research Award endowed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, in addition to support from the European Research Council under grant No. 647112. S.J. acknowledges support from the Beecroft Trust and ERC 693024. T.S. acknowledges support from the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) provided through DLR under projects 50 OR 1610 and 50 OR 1803, as well as support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG, under project SCHR 1400/3-1. The Melbourne authors acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council's Discovery Projects scheme (DP150103208). The 2dFLenS survey is based on data acquired through the Australian Astronomical Observatory, under program A/2014B/008. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at The Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey. The Collaborating Institutions are Argonne National Laboratory, the University of California at Santa Cruz, the University of Cambridge, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas-Madrid, the University of Chicago, University College London, the DES-Brazil Consortium, the University of Edinburgh, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC), the Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München and the associated Excellence Cluster Universe, the University of Michigan, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of Nottingham, The Ohio State University, the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Portsmouth, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, the University of Sussex, Texas A&M University, and the OzDES Membership Consortium. Based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant Nos. AST-1138766 and AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MINECO under grants AYA2015-71825, ESP2015-66861, FPA2015-68048, SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2016-0597, and MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013), including ERC grant agreements 240672, 291329, and 306478. We acknowledge support from the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) e-Universe (CNPq grant 465376/2014-2). This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) and the PS1 public science archive have been made possible through contributions by the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, the Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Facilities: Blanco (DECAM) - , Hubble Space Telescope (WFC3) - , Magellan:Baade (FourStar) - , Magellan:Clay (PISCO - , LDSS3C) - , NSF/US Department of Energy 10 m South Pole Telescope (SPTpol) - , Spitzer (IRAC) - , AAT(2dF+AAOmega). -
Group:TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-06CH11357
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-GO-15307.001
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-07CH11359
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds de recherche du Québec - Nature et technologies (FRQNT)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-76SF00515
European Research Council (ERC)716762
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MIUR)R165SBKTMA
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)647112
European Research Council (ERC)693024
Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)50 OR 1610
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)50 OR 1803
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SCHR 1400/3-1
Australian Research CouncilDP150103208
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
University of Illinois Urbana-ChampaignUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
Ohio State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Texas A&M UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)465376/2014-2
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI)UNSPECIFIED
Argonne National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
University of California Santa CruzUNSPECIFIED
University of CambridgeUNSPECIFIED
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y TecnológicasUNSPECIFIED
University of ChicagoUNSPECIFIED
University College LondonUNSPECIFIED
DES-Brazil ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
University of EdinburghUNSPECIFIED
Fermi National Accelerator LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (IEEC/CSIC)UNSPECIFIED
Institut de Física d'Altes EnergiesUNSPECIFIED
Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryUNSPECIFIED
Ludwig-Maximilians Universität MünchenUNSPECIFIED
Excellence Cluster UniverseUNSPECIFIED
University of MichiganUNSPECIFIED
National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO)UNSPECIFIED
University of NottinghamUNSPECIFIED
University of PennsylvaniaUNSPECIFIED
University of PortsmouthUNSPECIFIED
Stanford Linear Accelerator CenterUNSPECIFIED
Stanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of SussexUNSPECIFIED
OzDES Membership ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-71825
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2015-66861
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)FPA2015-68048
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0588
Centro de Excelencia Severo OchoaSEV-2016-0597
Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de MaeztuMDM-2015-0509
European Union Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Generalitat de CatalunyaUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)240672
European Research Council (ERC)291329
European Research Council (ERC)306478
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Galaxy clusters ; Strong gravitational lensing ; Large-scale structure of the universe
Issue or Number:1
Classification Code:Unified Astronomy Thesaurus concepts: Galaxy clusters (584); Strong gravitational lensing (1643); Large-scale structure of the universe (902)
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20200306-083510631
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:L. E. Bleem et al 2020 ApJS 247 25
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:101734
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:06 Mar 2020 20:29
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 18:05

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